Definition of Terms


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Definition of Terms

The State of Illinois certifies that in cases where the state and federal definitions differ that the federal definition is and will be used in the monitoring process.

  1. A
    1. Abused child
    2. Active probation caseload
    3. Adjudicated delinquent
    4. Adjudicatory hearing (adjudication)
    5. Admission
    6. Adult jail
    7. Adult jail Removal Illinois
    8. Adult Lockup
    9. Arrest
    10. Automatic transfer (Excluded Jurisdiction)
  2. B
    1. Balanced and restorative justice (BARJ)
  3. C
    1. Calendar Year
    2. Cell
    3. Chronic (habitual) truant
    4. Civil-type offender
    5. Clear and convincing evidence
    6. Collar counties
    7. Collocated Facility
    8. Community service
    9. Concurrent Jurisdiction
    10. Contact
    11. Continuance under court supervision
    12. Correctional institution or facility
    13. Court
    14. Court holding facility
    15. Court commitment
    16. Court evaluation
    17. Court evaluation return
    18. Court services (or probation departments)
    19. Criminal-type offender
  4. D
    1. Delayed egress device
    2. Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO)
    3. Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders OJJDP provisions
    4. Delinquency commitments
    5. Delinquency petitions
    6. Delinquent Minor
    7. Departments
    8. Detention
    9. Detention hearing
    10. Detention Room
    11. Detention screening instrument
    12. Determinate sentence
    13. Detoxification
    14. Discharge
    15. Discretionary transfer
    16. Dispositional hearing (disposition)
    17. Disproportionate minority confinement (DMC)
    18. Disproportionate minority contact (DMC)
    19. Disproportionate Representation index (DRI)
    20. Diversion
    21. Drug offenses
  5. E
    1. Exclusive jurisdiction
    2. Extended jurisdiction juvenile prosecution
  6. F
    1. Facility
    2. Forcible felony
    3. Formal probation
  7. G
    1. Group home
  8. H
    1. Home detention
  9. I
    1. Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission (IJJC)
    2. Incarceration of minors
    3. Indeterminate sentence
    4. Informal probation
    5. Intake screening of delinquency
    6. Intensive probation
  10. J
    1. Jail or lockups
    2. Juvenile Detention Center (Home)
    3. Jail and Detention Standards Unit
    4. Jail Removal Core Requirement
    5. Judicial circuit
    6. Juvenile
    7. Juvenile offender
    8. Juvenile investigation report
    9. Juvenile who is accused of having committed an offense
    10. Juvenile who has been adjudicated as having committed an offense.
    11. Juvenile Monitoring Information System (eJMIS)
    12. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (OJJDP)
    13. Juvenile police officer
  11. L
    1. Lawful custody.
  12. M
    1. Mandatory supervised release (MSR)
    2. Mandatory transfer
    3. Minor
    4. Minors requiring authoritative intervention (MRAI)
  13. N
    1. Neglected child
    2. Non-offenders
    3. Non-secure custody or non-secure detention
  14. O
    1. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
    2. Other individual accused of having committed a criminal offense
    3. Other individual convicted of a criminal offense.
    4. Outpatient
  15. P
    1. Parole
    2. Placement
    3. Post-trial detention
    4. Pre-trial detention
    5. Presumptive transfer
    6. Probable cause
    7. Probation
    8. Property crime index
  16. R
    1. Relative rate index (RRI)
    2. Representation index (RI)
    3. Return additional mittimus
    4. Residential treatment
    5. Restitution
    6. Revocation of probation or parole
  17. S
    1. Secure custody and detention
    2. Sentencing hearing
    3. Shelter care (temporary custody)
    4. Sight and Sound Separation
    5. Staff secure facility.
    6. State Advisory Group (SAG)
    7. State Fiscal Year
    8. Station adjustment
    9. Status offender
    10. Supervision (or supervised probation)
    11. Supervision violation
  18. T
    1. Technical violation (of parole or mandatory supervised release)
    2. Technical violation of probation
    3. Total detention days
    4. Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities, Inc. (TASC)
    5. Trial
    6. Truant
    7. Truant minor in need of supervision (TMINS)
  19. U
    1. Unified delinquency intervention services program (UDIS)
  20. V
    1. Valid court order.
    2. Victim offender conferencing
    3. Violent crime index
    4. Violent or person offenses
  21. W
    1. Warrant for arrest

A

Abused child

Any child whose parent, family member, or any person responsible for the child's welfare inflicts or creates a substantial risk of physical or mental injury; or commits or allows to be committed any sex offense or torture against such child; or inflicts excessive corporal punishment.

Active probation caseload

The total workload of open juvenile cases in a court services' department at a given point in time. The active caseload includes probation cases, supervision cases, cases continued under supervision, and informal supervision cases.

Adjudicated delinquent

Anyone prior to their 17th birthday that has been found by the Juvenile court to have violated or attempted to violate any federal or state law, or county or municipal ordinance.

Adjudicatory hearing (adjudication)

A court-based hearing to determine whether the allegations of a petition are supported. In the case of abused, neglected, or dependent minors, addicted minors, and minors requiring authoritative intervention (MRAI), a preponderance of the evidence is the standard applied. In the case of delinquency, the allegations of a petition that a minor is delinquent (has committed a delinquent offense) must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. An adjudication is a finding of guilt filed with the court. Effective January 1, 1999, the term "trial" replaced "adjudicatory hearing" in delinquency proceedings.

Admission

The entry of a juvenile offender into the temporary care of a secure custody facility. The minor is alleged to be or has been adjudicated delinquent and requires secure custody for the minor's own protection (or the community's protection) in a facility designed to physically restrict the minor's movements pending disposition by the court or execution of an order of the court for placement or commitment.

Adult jail

A locked facility, administered State, county or local law enforcement and correctional agencies, the purpose of which is to detain adults charged with violating criminal law, pending trial. Also considered as adult jails are those facilities used to hold convicted adult criminal offenders sentenced for less than 1 year

Adult jail Removal Illinois

Youth 12 years or older may be held up to 40 hours in an adult county jail, excluding Saturdays, Sundays and court designated holidays, and must be kept separate from confined adults, and may not at any time be kept in the same cell, room or yard with confined adults. To accept or hold youth, county jails must comply with all monitoring standards for juvenile detention homes promulgated by the Department of Corrections and training approved by the Illinois Law Enforcement Training Standards Board. Prior to the Juvenile Court Act change on January 1, 1999, minors could only be kept up to 36 hours in jail. In addition, youth who are held in detention and turn 17 while in detention may be released to and held in a jail facility regardless of these standards. A youth can only be held in an adult jail during their adjudicatory hearing.

Adult Lockup

Similar to an adult jail except that an adult lockup is generally a municipal or police facility of a temporary nature that does not hold persons after they have been formally charged.

Arrest

The taking of a youth into custody by a law enforcement officer (1) who has probable cause to believe the minor is delinquent; or (2) that the minor is a ward of the court who has escaped from a court-ordered commitment; or (3) whom the officer reasonably believes has violated the conditions of probation or supervision ordered by the court.

Automatic transfer (Excluded Jurisdiction)

The criminal court is established as the original court of jurisdiction if the youth is over 15 years old and accused of committing an offense listed below: first degree murder, aggravated criminal sexual assault, aggravated battery with a firearm, armed robbery with a firearm, or aggravated vehicular hijacking with a firearm. Also establishes the criminal court as the original court of jurisdiction for offenses that occurred in connection with the aforementioned offenses.

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B

Balanced and restorative justice (BARJ)

A justice philosophy that an offender be held accountable for his or her actions to victims and the community, that increases offender competencies, and that protects the public through processes in which victims, the community, and offenders are all active participants. BARJ principles were included in the Juvenile Court Act effective January 1, 1999.

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C

Calendar Year

Time period used for monitoring and reporting (January 1 to December 31 in a single year.

Cell

An area that has three walls & a grilled front door or a security glass front and door that is used to detain or confine adults or to detain juveniles 16 years of age or older.

Chronic (habitual) truant

A minor subject to compulsory school attendance who is absent without valid cause from such attendance for 10 percent or more of the previous 180 regular attendance days (more than 18 unexcused absences).

Civil-type offender

A juvenile or offender who has been charged with or adjudicated for an offense that is civil in nature. Examples include noncriminal traffic violations and noncriminal game violations

Clear and convincing evidence

The degree of proof which, considering all evidence in the case, produces the firm belief that it is highly probable that the facts sought to be proved are true.

Collar counties

The five counties that surround Cook County: Du Page County, Kane County, Lake County, McHenry County, and Will County.

Collocated Facility

A collocated facility is a juvenile facility that is located in the same building as an adult

Jail or lockup or is a part of a related complex of buildings located on the same grounds as an adult jail or lockup. A complex of buildings is considered "related" when it shares physical features such as walls and fences or services beyond mechanical services(heating, air conditioning, water and sewer) 28CFR 31.303(D).

Community service

Uncompensated labor as a court requirement for alleged or adjudicated offenders for a non-profit organization or public body, which agrees to accept public or community service from offenders and to report on the progress of the offenders and community service to the court.

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Concurrent Jurisdiction

Any minor alleged to have violated a traffic, boating, or fish and game law, or a municipal or county ordinance, may be prosecuted for the violation and if found guilty punished under any statute or ordinance relating to the violation.

Contact

Any physical or sustained sight and sound contact between juvenile offenders in a secure custody status and incarcerated adults, including inmate trustees. Sight contact is defined as clear visual contact between incarcerated adults and juveniles within close proximity to each other. Sound contact is defined as a direct oral communication between incarcerated adults and juvenile offenders.

Continuance under court supervision

When the court enters an order (1) upon an admission or stipulation by the appropriate respondent or minor respondent of the facts supporting the petition and before proceeding to adjudication, or after hearing the evidence at the adjudicatory hearing, and (2) in the absence of objection made in open court by the minor, his or her guardian, defense attorney, or state's attorney. During the continuance period, not to exceed 24 months, the court requires the minor to follow specific conditions (found at 705 ILCS 405/5-615(5)) ordered by the court and the minor is supervised by court services. If the alleged offender successfully completes the conditions imposed by the court, the petition is dismissed. A court can enter a continuance under supervision for any offense other than first degree murder, a Class X felony or a forcible felony.

Correctional institution or facility

Any building or part of a building where committed persons are kept in a secure manner.

Court

A circuit court in a session or division assigned to hear proceedings under the Illinois Act (705 ILCS 405/5-105) and includes the term Juvenile Court.

Court holding facility

A court holding facility is a secure facility, other than an adult jail or lockup that is used to temporarily detain persons immediately before or after detention hearings or other court proceedings.

Court commitment

A sentence to IDOC after adjudication of delinquency by the courts or for a court evaluation.

Court evaluation

A short-term, court-ordered, 30, 60, or 90-day commitment to the Department of Corrections, Juvenile Division to assess the needs of a delinquent youth through a comprehensive diagnosis and assessment for the purpose of identifying needs providing the court with information to make placement decisions.

Court evaluation return

A return of a youth to serve an indeterminate term in IDJJ decided by a juvenile court judge based on the court evaluation.

Court services (or probation departments)

Provided by probation services in each county. The chief judge of each circuit makes provision for probation services through the appointment of officers to a probation or court services department. The Probation and Probation Officers Act governs the administration of these departments.

Criminal-type offender

A juvenile offender who has been charged with or adjudicated for conduct that would, under the law of the jurisdiction in which the offense was committed, be a crime if committed by an adult. (28 CFR 31.304(G)

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D

Delayed egress device

A device that precludes the use of exits for a predetermined period of time.

Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO)

No minor accused of a status offense (an act that would not be criminal if committed by an adult) may be securely detained in a jail, lockup or juvenile detention center. Examples of status offenses are truancy, running away, curfew violations, underage drinking and being ungovernable (MRAI). An exception is granted for status offenders detained for violation of a court order. This requirement also extends to non-offenders, juveniles who are subject to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court, usually under abuse, dependency, or neglect statutes, for reasons other than legally prohibited conduct of the juvenile)

Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders OJJDP provisions

Section 223(a)(12)(A) of the OJJDP Act provides that status offenders and non-offenders not be detained or confined in secure detention or correctional facilities. OJJDP policy has since1975, provided an exception to allow a status offender to be detained for up to 24 hours, exclusive of week ends and legal holidays, in a juvenile detention center facility. The revised core requirement expressly provides that it is permissible to hold an accused status offender in a secure juvenile detention center facility for up to 24 hours, exclusive of weekends and legal holidays, prior to an initial court appearance and for an additional 24 hours exclusive of weekends and legal holidays, immediately following an initial court appearance.

Non - offenders can not be held in a juvenile detention center for any length of time.

Delinquency commitments

A delinquent age 13 or over may be committed to the Juvenile Division of the Illinois Department of Corrections when the court finds that (1) the minor's guardian is unfit or unable, other than for financial reasons, to care for, protect, and discipline the minor, or is unwilling to do so, and that the best interests of the public would not be served by another form of placement, or (2) it is necessary to ensure the protection of the public from the consequences of criminal activity of the delinquent. Offenders transferred to the adult courts and committed to the Illinois Department of Corrections are the responsibility of the Juvenile Division at least until age 17, but never beyond age 21.

Delinquency petitions

Documents filed in delinquency cases with the juvenile court through the state's attorney alleging that a juvenile is a delinquent. The petition sets forth the supporting facts regarding the alleged offense, information about the minor, and, if the minor is detained, the start dates of the detention. The petition requests that the minor be adjudged a ward of the court and asks for relief under the Juvenile Court Act. Supplemental petitions may be filed alleging new offenses or alleging new violations of orders entered by the court in the delinquency proceeding.

Delinquent Minor

Minors who, prior to their 17th birthday, have violated or attempted to violate any federal or state law, or municipal ordinance. Violation of a county ordinance was added on January 1, 1999.

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Departments

Illinois Department of Corrections (IDOC)

Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS)

Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice (IDJJ)

Administrative Office of the Illinois Courts (AOIC)

Detention

The temporary care of a minor alleged or adjudicated as delinquent who requires secure custody for his or her own or the community's protection in a facility designed to physically restrict his or her movements, pending disposition by the court or execution of an order of the court for placement or commitment. According to the Juvenile Court Act, minors are placed in detention if there is a matter of immediate and urgent necessity for the protection of the minor or the community, there is concern the minor is likely to flee the jurisdiction of the court, or that the minor was taken into custody under a warrant.

Detention hearing

Hearing to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that a minor age 10 or older is delinquent and whether there is immediate need for the minor to be detained until trial. The hearing must be held within 40 hours of taking the minor into custody, exclusive of weekends and holidays, or the minor must be released.

Detention Room

An area that has four walls and a door (no bars or grilled front) that is used to detain juveniles or adults.

Detention screening instrument

An objective, scorable instrument administered by a detention screener to determine if the youth's current offense and prior history are severe enough to warrant detaining the youth until his or her detention hearing.

Determinate sentence

A sentence in which the length of time of a sentence to a correctional facility is statutorily defined [730 ILCS 5/5-8-1]. Illinois adopted a determinate sentencing model on February 1, 1978.

Detoxification

The process of withdrawing a person from a specific psychoactive substance in a safe and effective manner.

Discharge

The final termination of a commitment to IDOC, IDJJ and probation placement.

Discretionary transfer

A transfer of a minor 13 years of age or older to adult court for criminal prosecution when a motion has been filed by the state's attorney and the judge finds that there is probable cause to believe the allegations in the motion to be true and it is not in the best interest of the public to proceed under the Juvenile Court Act.

Dispositional hearing (disposition)

Hearing to determine whether a minor should be adjudged to be a ward of the court and to determine what order of disposition should be made. Effective January 1, 1999, the term "sentencing hearing" replaced "dispositional hearing" in delinquency cases.

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Disproportionate minority confinement (DMC)

The over-representation of minority youth in secure juvenile facilities compared to minority youth representation in the general population.

Disproportionate minority contact (DMC)

The over-representation of minority youth involved in the juvenile justice system at any given stage of the process compared to minority youth representation in the general population.

Disproportionate Representation index (DRI)

Compares the percentage of all youth who are of a particular minority group at one stage of the juvenile justice process to that minority group's representation at the previous stage.

Diversion

The referral of a juvenile without court intervention into a program that provides services designed to educate the juvenile and develop a productive and responsible approach to living in the community.

Drug offenses

Violations of the following public acts regarding illegal drugs and liquor violations by minors: Cannabis Control Act, Controlled Substances Act, Hypodermic Syringes and Needles Act, Drug Paraphernalia Act, and Liquor Control Act.

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E

Exclusive jurisdiction

Exclusion from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court by age or crime committed.

Extended jurisdiction juvenile prosecution

A juvenile prosecution where a juvenile, if found delinquent, receives a juvenile and an adult sentence with the adult sentence stayed pending satisfactory completion of the juvenile sentence. Should the juvenile not satisfactorily complete the juvenile sentence, the adult sentence will be imposed. See 705 ILCS 405/5-810(4).

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F

Facility

A place, an institution, a building or part thereof, set of buildings, or an area whether or not enclosing a building or a set of buildings which is used for the lawful custody and treatment of juveniles and may be allowed and /or operated by public and private agencies.

Forcible felony

Violations of criminal law that include: treason, first degree murder, second degree murder, predatory criminal sexual assault of a child, aggravated arson, arson, aggravated kidnapping, kidnapping, aggravated battery resulting in great bodily harm, or other felony which involved the use or threat of physical force or violence. See 720 ILCS 5/2-8.

Formal probation

The guidance, treatment, or regulation by a probation officer for the behavior of delinquent youth, after a court sentence. Youth adjudicated delinquent can be sentenced to probation for a maximum of five years or until age 21, whichever comes first.

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G

Group home

24-hour supervision by professionally trained staff for as many as 12 youth. Youth may attend community schools, but usually education is provided on the premises due to security risks. Professional parenting group homes provide a highly structured home environment. Youth served are individuals who are waiting for further action by the court and who would otherwise be placed in a secure detention setting as a result of having no other option available. Professional parents serve no more than four youth at a time.

H

Home detention

An alternative to the intensity and expense of secure detention, in which a minor is ordered to remain home, with possible exceptions for school attendance or similar necessary exceptions, and a probation officer monitors the youth's confinement to home. Home detention may be pre- or post-dispositional and may include electronic monitoring. Intensive supervision detention is a higher level of intervention than home detention. Greater restrictiveness is provided by more frequent supervision, visits, or contacts.

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I

Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission (IJJC)

The Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission (IJJC) is the State Advisory Group for Illinois.

This Commission has 25 members= positions appointed by the Governor. They have training, experience, or special knowledge concerning the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency or the administration of justice. Members serve three-year terms and must be reappointed or re[placed.

Incarceration of minors

Except for minors accused of violation of an order of the court, any minor accused of any act under federal or state law, or a municipal ordinance that would be illegal if committed by an adult, cannot be placed in a jail, municipal lockup, detention center or secure correctional facility. Confinement in a county jail of a minor accused of a violation of an order of the court, or of a minor of r whom there is reasonable cause to believe that the minor is a person described in subsection (3) of section 5-105, shall be in accordance with the restrictions set forth in sections5-410 and 5-501 of the Juvenile Court Act.

Indeterminate sentence

A sentence in which the length of time of a sentence to a correctional facility is given in a minimum and maximum time period. The release of the individual on parole is discretionarily determined by a correctional authority, typically a Parole Review Board or a Prisoner Review Board. In Illinois, only juveniles receive indeterminate sentences.

Informal probation

The guidance, treatment, or regulation by a probation officer for the behavior of non-delinquent youth prior to a court referral. Informal probation provides short-term care and functions as a diversion option from the formal court process.

Intake screening of delinquency

Used when a juvenile is referred to the court, or to the place designated by the court. At an intake screening, a probation officer or another officer designated by the court investigates the circumstances of the minor and the facts surrounding his or her being taken into custody for the purpose of determining whether a delinquency petition should be filed.

Intensive probation

A more intrusive form of probation, including increased daily contact with youth, usually at least 2-3 daily contacts. Specially trained probation officers know each youth's schedule of activities and whereabouts at all times. Youth are required to "check in" personally or by phone and to review their schedule of the day's activities. Intensive probation officers often work directly with the families.

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J

Jail or lockups

A secure facility operated by a municipal police department or county sheriff for the temporary detention of persons who are being held for investigation pending disposition of their cases by the judiciary or who are awaiting transfer to another institution.

Juvenile Detention Center (Home)

A public facility with specially trained staff that conforms to the county juvenile detention standards promulgated by IDJJ.

Jail and Detention Standards Unit

Unit within the Division of Support Services of the Department of Corrections which is authorized to monitor compliance with Municipal Jail and Lockup Standards. Monitors jails and lockups for Feral Juvenile core requirements under a grant from IJJC.

Jail Removal Core Requirement

The Illinois Juvenile Court Act was rewritten becoming effective in 1999. One new provision is in direct conflict with the Jail Removal requirement of the JJDP Act. The new provision permits county jails and municipal lockups to detain minors 12 years of age and older up to 12 hours, unless the offense is a crime of violence, in which case the minor may be detained up to 24 hours. Even with this conflict Illinois has been in compliance since 1999. The State of Illinois certifies as in this case where the state and federal definitions differ that the federal definition is and will be used in the monitoring process.

Judicial circuit

Illinois is divided into 23 judicial circuits, Cook County being designated as one circuit, and the remaining circuits designated by number. Most judicial circuits consist of several counties with one shared circuit court. Court services may be provided for an entire judicial circuit, and not for each individual county in the circuit.

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Juvenile

Youth in juvenile justice system are under the age of 17 in Illinois. However, in general the term refers to individuals under age 18, which is a reporting category for youth defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Demographic data from federal sources typically categorize juveniles as under age 18. See "delinquent minor" and "minor."

Juvenile offender

An individual subject to the exercise of juvenile court jurisdiction for purposes of an adjudication and treatment based on age and offense limitations as -type offender or status offender. defined by state law, i.e., a criminal

Juvenile investigation report

A court-ordered investigation completed by probation departments to highlight a youth's background and prior delinquent history in order to determine if filing a case against the youth is appropriate. See 705 ILCS 405/5-701.

Juvenile who is accused of having committed an offense

A juvenile with respect to whom a petition has been file in the juvenile court or other action has occurred alleging that such juvenile is a juvenile offender, i.e., a criminal-type offender or status offender, and no final adjudication has been made by the juvenile court.

Juvenile who has been adjudicated as having committed an offense.

A juvenile with respect to whom the juvenile court has determined that such juvenile is a juvenile offender, i.e., a criminal -type offender or a status offender.

Juvenile Monitoring Information System (eJMIS)

A juvenile detention data collection program that complies information regarding youth in etention. It is funded by the Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission and is overseen by the Center for Prevention Research and Development at the University of Illinois Champaign- Urbana to input data and pull records.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (OJJDP)

The federal OJJDP Act of 1974 established a block grant program to the States by formula based upon juvenile population. The Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission oversees the program. In order to be eligible to receive grant funds, states must be committed to achieving and maintaining compliance with the core requirements of the JJDP Act. The four core requirements are:

  • (1) remove non-offending youth and status offenders from locked facilities (deinstitutionalization of status offenders, or DSO);
  • (2) ensure complete separation of youth from adult offenders in county jails and municipal lockups (jail separation);
  • (3) eliminate confinement of juveniles in county jails and municipal lockups (jail removal); and
  • (4) assess the representation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system, and where disparity exists, develop strategies to address the disparity-disproportionate minority confinement.

Juvenile police officer

A sworn police officer who has completed a Basic Recruit Training Course, has been assigned to the position of juvenile police officer by his or her chief law enforcement officer and has completed the necessary juvenile officers training as prescribed by the Illinois Law Enforcement Training Board or in the case of a State police officer, juvenile officer training approved by the Director of the State Police.

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L

Lawful custody.

The exercise of care, supervision, and control over a juvenile offender or non offender pursuant to the provisions of the law or of a judicial order or decree.

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M

Mandatory supervised release (MSR)

Once the sentence of incarceration has been completed, inmates are statutorily mandated to be released under the supervision of the correctional authority for a period of time that is statutorily defined [730 ILCS 5/3-3-7]. On February 1, 1978, Illinois adopted a determinate sentencing model, which statutorily defines prison sentences and time spent under supervision of a parole agent.

Mandatory transfer

A motion filed by the State's Attorney to allow the prosecution of a youth 15 years of age or older for a forcible felony if the youth has previously been adjudicated delinquent for an offense that was committed in furtherance of criminal activity of a gang, and the juvenile judge determines there is probable cause that the allegations are true.

Minor

A person under the age of 21 years old.

Minors requiring authoritative intervention (MRAI)

A subcategory of "offense" status that refers to minors less than 18 years who are absent from home without consent of a guardian, or are beyond control of a guardian in circumstances which constitute a substantial or immediate danger to the minor's physical safety. Additionally, the minor has to have been in limited custody for a statutory period of time. See 705 ILCS 405/3-3.

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N

Neglected child

Any child who is not receiving the care, support, or education required by law.

Non-offenders

Juveniles who are subject to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court, usually under abuse, dependency, or neglect statutes, for reasons other than legally prohibited conduct of the juvenile.

Non-secure custody or non-secure detention

For a minor that requires care away from his or her home but does not require physical restriction. Temporary custody shall be given to a foster family, or shelter facility designated by the court. Also a juvenile may be in law enforcement custody and therefore not free to leave or depart from the presence of a law enforcement officer or at liberty to leave the premises of a law enforcement facility, but not be in a secure detention or confinement status.

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O

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

A component of the Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, accomplishes its mission by supporting states, local communities, and tribal jurisdictions in their efforts to develop and implement effective programs for juveniles.

Other individual accused of having committed a criminal offense

An individual, adult or juvenile, who has been charged with committing a criminal offense in a court exercising criminal jurisdiction.

Other individual convicted of a criminal offense.

An individual, adult or juvenile who has been convicted of a criminal offense by the court exercising criminal jurisdiction.

Outpatient

Services that consist of face-to-face clinical services for adolescents in a non- residential setting with regularly scheduled sessions that typically average less than nine hours per week.

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P

Parole

Discretionary early release of an inmate sentenced to a correctional facility with an indeterminate sentence before serving the maximum time of their sentence under the supervision of a parole officer. Early release is at the discretion of parole authorities, most commonly a Parole Review Board or a Prisoner Review Board. Both mandatory supervised release (MSR) and parole are commonly referred to as parole.

Placement

Court-ordered commitments or assignments to non-secure settings such as placements with relatives, foster homes, group homes, or residential treatment.

Post-trial detention

The detainment of youth adjudicated delinquent following their trial.

Pre-trial detention

The detainment of youth accused of delinquent acts but who have not yet had a trial.

Presumptive transfer

A transfer to adult court for criminal prosecution if there is probable cause that a juvenile has committed a Class X felony or certain other offenses, and the juvenile court judge is unable to make a finding based on clear and convincing evidence that the juvenile is amendable to the care, treatment, and training programs available to the juvenile court.

Probable cause

A reasonable belief that a fact is more probably true than not.

Probation

The conditional freedom granted by a judicial officer to an alleged or adjudicated delinquent offender, as long as the person meets certain conditions. The period of probation may not exceed five years or extend beyond the offender's 21st birthday, whichever is less. A probation violation occurs when one or more of the conditions of probation are not followed and may result in a commitment to the Department of Corrections. The age limit for probation was changed to 21 years old on January 1, 1999 with the Juvenile Court Act change.

Property crime index

A subcategory of non-violent index crime referring to serious crimes against property, including burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

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R

Relative rate index (RRI)

A measure of disproportionate minority contact. Compares the rate at which one racial or ethnic group is represented at a particular juvenile justice decision point to the rate a different racial or ethnic group is represented at the same decision point.

Representation index (RI)

Compares the percentage of all youth of a particular minority group at a certain juvenile justice decision point to that minority group's representation in the general juvenile population.

Return additional mittimus

An offender, upon completing a sentence, is ordered to serve time on a prior offense sentence.

Residential treatment

Substance abuse treatment that consists of clinical services for adolescents. A planned regimen of clinical services for a minimum of 25 hours per week must be included and requires staff on duty 24 hours per day, seven days per week. These treatment programs may address special juvenile offender populations such as sex offenders, teen prostitutes, and substance abusers.

Restitution

A court requirement that an alleged or adjudicated offender pays money or provides services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community.

Revocation of probation or parole

A legal process in which the probation or parole order of an individual is revoked and that individual must either return to court or return to a correctional facility to serve the remainder of their parole period [730 ILCS 5/3-3-9].

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S

Secure custody and detention

Confinement where the minor is physically restricted by being placed in a locked cell, room or facility, or by other means, such as being handcuffed to a stationary object, or by other means such as detention or correctional facilities, this term also includes residential facilities that include construction features designed to physically restrict the movements and activities of persons in custody buildings, fences, or other physical structures. It does not include facilities where physical restriction of movement or activity is provided solely through facility staff.

Sentencing hearing

See dispositional hearing.

Shelter care (temporary custody)

Any minor taken into temporary custody pursuant to this act who requires care away from his or her home but who does not require physical restriction shall be given temporary care in a foster family home or other shelter facility designated by the court .

Sight and Sound Separation

This Core Requirement mandates the sight and separation of adult and juvenile offenders whenever they are held in the same facility.

Staff secure facility.

A staff secure facility may be defined as a residential facility(1) which does not include construction features designed to physically restrict the movements and activities of juveniles who are in custody therein; (2) which may establish reasonable rules restricting entrance to and egress from the facility: and (3) in which the movements and activities of individual residents may, for treatment purposes, be restricted or subject to control through the use of intensive staff supervision.

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State Advisory Group (SAG)

See Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission.

State Fiscal Year

In Illinois, runs from July 1 through June 30.

Station adjustment

The informal or formal handling of a minor by a juvenile police officer as a diversionary intervention procedure as defined by the Illinois Juvenile Court Act (705 ILCS 405/5-301).

Status offender

Any offense committed by a juvenile that would not be a crime if committed by an adult; an offense specifically applicable to juveniles because of their age (e.g. non-criminal behavior such as curfew violations, running away from home, truancy, consumption of tobacco products and underage possession and/or consumption of alcohol. This offense is always considered a status offense, even though State or local law may consider it a delinquent offense.

Supervision (or supervised probation)

The guidance, treatment, or regulation of a youth by a probation agent on behalf of the court. Supervision may be imposed upon a youth adjudicated delinquent or upon certain non-delinquent youths such as Minors Requiring Authoritative Intervention (MRAI).

Supervision violation

The failure to abide by the terms of the juvenile's supervision agreement. A supervision agreement may be violated in two ways. (1) The agreement is violated if the juvenile commits a new offense. (2) Violating a specific term of the agreement is a technical supervision violation.

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T

Technical violation (of parole or mandatory supervised release)

A violation of a specific condition or term of an individual's parole or mandatory supervised release. May result in a revocation of parole or mandatory supervised release and a return to a correctional facility [730 ILCS 5/3-3-9(a)].

Technical violation of probation

A violation of a specific condition or term off a youth's probation. May result in a revocation of probation and a sentence to secure custody.

Total detention days

Represents, for a given period in time, the total number of days all juveniles were held in secure detention for a particular jurisdiction.

Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities, Inc. (TASC)

A private non-profit agency that provides substance abuse assessment and case management services to the courts.

Trial

See adjudicatory hearing.

Truant

A minor who is subject to compulsory school attendance from age 7-17 and is absent without valid cause.

Truant minor in need of supervision (TMINS)

A minor who is reported by a regional superintendent of schools, or in cities of over 500,000 inhabitants, by the Office of Chronic Truant Adjudication, as a chronic truant shall be adjudged a truant minor in need of supervision. [705 ILCS 405/3 33(a)]. It should be noted that this statute was repealed on July 7, 2006. The definition of TMINS is now found at 705 ILCS 405/3-33.5(a).

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U

Unified delinquency intervention services program (UDIS)

Funded by the Department of Human Services, the program seeks to be a community alternative to a commitment to the Illinois Department of Corrections by providing intensive rehabilitative care. Services include advocacy, group work, and assisting youth in developing alternative behaviors. Performance goals include returning to school or acquiring gainful employment. The program was transferred from the Department of Children and Family Services on July 1, 1997.

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V

Valid court order.

A valid court order is a court order given by a juvenile court judge to a juvenile who was brought before the court and made subject to the order, and who received, before the issuance of the order, the full due process rights guaranteed to such juvenile by the Constitution of the United States.

Victim offender conferencing

Victim offender conferencing programs are facilitated by a trained mediator and bring together the offender and victim. A discussion takes place and an agreement for the offender to follow is developed. These programs are also referred to as victim offender mediations, victim offender reconciliation programs, or community mediations.

Violent crime index

A subcategory of index crime referring to serious crimes against persons, including homicide, criminal sexual assault, armed robbery, aggravated assault, and aggravated battery.

Violent or person offenses

Crimes of physical violence, including homicide, criminal sexual assault, armed robbery, aggravated assault, aggravated battery, as well as simple battery and simple assault.

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W

Warrant for arrest

A document issued by a judicial officer that directs law enforcement officers to arrest a person who has been accused of a specific offense. In juvenile cases, warrants may be issued for delinquent youth, MRAI, TINS, and dependent children.

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