Illinois Salary & Staffing Survey of Licensed Child Care Facilities: FY2009

Illinois Salary & Staffing Survey of Licensed Child Care Facilities: FY2009 (pdf)


Prepared by: Angela R. Wiley, PhD; Samantha King, MA; and Philip C. Garnier, PhD
Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Executive Summary 

High quality child care optimizes children's experiences and developmental outcomes and also contributes to a prepared, productive and stable future workforce. Practitioners who work in child care settings are responsible for the quality of care and education provided to children and their families. The Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS) is required by legislative rule (20 ILCS 505/5.15) to conduct a survey of the workforce in licensed child care facilities every two years. This survey must document the average wages and salaries, and benefits paid to child care practitioners throughout the state; the qualifications of new practitioners hired at licensed child care facilities during the previous two years; the number of qualified practitioners who apply for vacant positions; and the difficulties centers face in engaging and retaining practitioners. The findings of this 2009 survey profile the qualifications, salary and benefits, and turnover rates from a sample of the 13,953 licensed child care programs operating in Illinois as of July 24, 2009.

In April 2009, licensed full- and part-time child care centers and family child care homes listed with the Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (INCCRRA) were invited to complete a survey, either online, or if they requested, via a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A total of 602 child care centers returned completed surveys (an 18.8 % response rate), and 1,251 family child care home providers returned surveys (an 11.6 % response rate).

Child Care Centers - Highlights and Key Findings

Capacity and Staffing

  • The average licensed capacity of centers was 81 children.
  • The respondents for 391 centers reported a total of 7,922 employees in their programs, including:
    • 961 directors and director/teachers,
    • 5,391 classroom teaching staff,
    • 314 food service staff,
    • 233 building support staff, and
    • 201 administrative support staff.

Accreditation

  • Out of 602 child care centers,
    • 38 (13.8%) were accredited by NAEYC;
    • 4 (1.5%) were accredited by NAA;
    • 3 (1.1%) were accredited by NECPA.

Education Level of Staff

  • Out of 1,599 Early Childhood Teachers,
    • 99.5% were reported to have some form of college education,
    • 70.0% had completed a college degree (Associates or higher),
    • 61.0% had completed their degrees in early childhood education or child development, and
    • 8.9% had completed a Child Development Associate (CDA) or Child Care Professional (CCP) credential.
  • 26.5% of Early Childhood Teachers with a bachelor's degree or higher were reported to have 04/02 public school teaching certificates.

Salary

  • The median hourly wage for a full-time Administrative Director in a full-year program was $17.00 per hour, which is approximately equal to $35,360 per year (assuming 40 hours per week, 52 weeks per year).
  • The median hourly wage for a full-time Early Childhood Teacher in a full-year program was $11.00 per hour, which is approximately equal to $22,880 per year.
  • The median hourly wage for a full-time Early Childhood Assistant Teacher in a full-year program was $8.70 per hour, which is approximately equal to $18,096 per year.

Benefits

  • Most centers did not provide insurance (either fully or partially paid) to most of their staff:
    • 34.6% of centers provided health insurance for their staff.
    • 22.0% of centers provided dental insurance.
    • 35.2% of centers provided life insurance.
    • 32.1% of centers provided retirement/pension coverage for their employees.
  • Most centers did provide time off benefits:
    • 76.5% of centers provided paid vacation leave.
    • 79.5% of centers provided paid holiday leave for staff.
    • 73.8% of centers provided paid sick leave for employees.

Turnover

  • The turnover rate for Early Childhood Teachers over the last two years was 27.7%.
  • The turnover rate for Early Childhood Assistant Teachers over the last two years was 39.4%.
  • Dissatisfaction with pay was reported as a reason for early childhood teachers to leave their jobs; however, it was similar in importance to some other reasons given. Dissatisfaction with professional development opportunities was the least important reason specified for leaving voluntarily.
  • More than one-half of Directors reported that it took more than three weeks to fill an Early Childhood Teacher vacancy.

Family Child Care Home Providers - Highlights and Key Findings

Capacity and Enrollment

  • The average license capacity for family child care providers was 9 children, with providers reporting that they care for an average of 7.4 children per week typically.

Accreditation

  • Out of 1251 family child care providers,
    • 43 (3.4%) were accredited by NAFCC

Education Level

  • 70.0% had some form of college education.
  • 56.1% had an Associate's degree or higher.
  • 14.6% had an Associate's degree or higher in either early childhood education or child development.
  • 1.3% with a bachelor's degree or higher were reported to have 04/02 public school teaching certificates.

Salary and Benefits

  • Licensed family child care providers reported an average annual net income of $11,257 per year
    • 25% of family child care providers make less than $3,000.
    • 50% of family child care providers make less than $10,000.
    • 75% of family child care providers make less than $17,400.
  • While just over half (52.9%) of family child care providers are paid for closed holidays, 86.1% are not paid for closed sick days, and 80.5% are not paid for vacation days.
  • 84.4% of family child care providers were covered by some form of health insurance. 56.3% of those were covered by their spouse's employer, 17.8% purchased their own health insurance, and 13.5% were Medicaid/Medicare eligible.
  • Over one-half (58.4%) of family child care providers contributed to Social Security and slightly over one-fourth (25.7%) set aside money for retirement.
  • One in three (33.9%) providers had received some form of public assistance in the preceding two years.

Years of Experience/Turnover

  • Family child care home providers reported an average of 18.9 years of experience taking care of children in their homes. Nearly half had 9 years or more experience.
  • Over one fourth (29.4%) of licensed family child care providers reported that they had been previously employed in a child care center or public school.
  • 38.5% of family child care providers considered quitting providing care in the preceding year. Of those, 68.2% endorsed dissatisfaction with benefits as a primary reason.
  • 50% of family child care providers plan to quit providing care within 10 years.

Working Hours

  • On average, family child care providers were paid to care for children 53.7 hours per week.
  • On average, family child providers spent an additional 16.5 hours per week on aspects related to their child care business (preparing food, shopping, cleaning, record keeping and activity planning for the children).

Motivation for Providing Care

  • 94.3% of the total sample of family child care providers endorsed the item,Enjoy teaching children as a major reason for providing child care in their homes.
  • At the same time, 82.4% of the total sample endorsed the item, Earn a living as a major reason for providing child care in their homes.

Introduction

Legislative rule 20 ILCS 505/5.15 requires the Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS) to conduct a statewide survey of the workforce of licensed child care facilities every two years. The survey is to assess, among other indicators:

  • The average wages and salaries and fringe benefit packages paid to practitioners throughout the state, computed on a regional basis;
  • The number of qualified practitioners, as defined by rule, attracted to vacant positions; and
  • The qualifications of new practitioners hired at licensed child care facilities during the previous two years.

IDHS contracted with researchers from the Department of Human and Community Development at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to conduct the Fiscal Year 2009 survey.

Methods

Survey Development

Two forms of the Salary and Staffing Survey were constructed: one for Child Care Centers and one for Family Child Care Home Providers. For both forms, in order to compare results with those of previous years, questionnaire items used in past administrations were retained, with some minor formatting and wording changes and the addition of a number of new items, described later.

As with the administration of the 2007 Salary and Staffing Survey, each form of the 2009 survey was made available to respondents in two modalities: online, available over the internet, and as a mailed paper-and-pencil document. Both modalities contained essentially the same content, with formatting and instructions tailored to the specific mode of administration.

Using the web-based Checkbox® Survey Software (www.checkbox.com), versions of both forms were transcribed directly from the paper forms. The online surveys were accessed by respondents via a link on the Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies' (INCCRRA) website. The Salary Survey web page offered respondents links to their choice of the Licensed Family Child Care survey or the Licensed Child Care Center survey as well as links to a summary of the FY07 results and technical assistance contact information. To maintain confidentiality, all respondents were assigned a randomly-generated 8-digit code number that identified them to the system and allowed them to log in to the server and access the survey.

Both forms of the online survey were programmed to allow respondents to answer questions at their own pace, save their responses, and return to their saved survey at a later session by entering the assigned code. The program also allowed respondents to go back and change submitted responses, either within a session or during a later session.

Respondents could request a paper copy of either the Licensed Family Child Care survey or the Licensed Child Care Center survey by emailing or calling INCCRRA. Respondents were given a self addressed stamped envelope to return the surveys.

A copy of both the Child Care Center and Family Child Care surveys is included in Appendix A. Readers wishing to view the online versions may go to http://salarysurvey.ilchildcare.org.

Respondents

In Illinois, the Department of Children and Family Services (IDCFS) licenses child care facilities. These facilities are listed in the local Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) agencies provider database maintained by INCCRRA. Survey invitations were sent to all 13,953 facilities, 3,196 licensed child care centers and 10,757 licensed family child care home providers, who were listed in the INCCRRA database as providing care as of December 31, 2008.

Child Care Resource and Referral services in Illinois are provided by sixteen contracted local agencies, each with a uniquely defined service delivery area (SDA). Each SDA is made up of one or more Illinois counties. Together, all 16 agencies cover the 102 counties in Illinois (See map in Appendix B). Each CCR&R has one or more physical locations within its SDA; many agencies are housed in larger parent organizations such as colleges/universities, YWCAs or other community agencies. All Illinois CCR&R agencies are members of the Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (INCCRRA), which coordinates and supports them in their efforts.

Administration of Surveys

On April 13, 2009, emails were sent to the 6,443 providers (4,865 family child care home providers, 1,578 centers) for whom email addresses were available in the INCCRRA database. On April 17, 2009, a letter (copies of all survey materials are included in Appendix A) was sent to all center (to the center director) and family home providers (see numbers above) explaining the purpose of the survey and inviting them to participate, either online or via a mailed paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Self-addressed postcards were included with the letter to be returned if the provider wished to be mailed a paper-and-pencil form of the survey. In the event that the postcard was returned, a survey was mailed to the provider with a self-addressed return envelope.

On May 18, 2009, postcards were sent to all 13,953 providers (10,757 family child care home providers, 3,196 centers) thanking them if they had completed the survey, informing/reminding them of the survey's availability online, and providing an email address and phone numbers if they preferred to complete the pencil-and-paper form of the survey. A second reminder postcard was sent to all participants (n=572) who had begun but not finished the online survey. All completed surveys returned by July 24, 2009 were included in analyses.

Survey Data

Note that not all respondents who returned a survey answered every question, so there is some variation in the number of responses reported for each question. The notation ('N or N=) indicates the (raw) number of responses to a particular survey item.

A few statistical terms using these data as an example: 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 99

Mean - the average, the result of adding all values in a data set and dividing by the number of values. Means are sensitive to each score in a data set but can be easily affected by extreme values. In the example data set above, the mean is calculated as: (1+2+2+2+3+3+4+5+6+6+7+8+99)/13 = 11.23.  If the extreme score, 99, was to change to say 9, the mean would chane dramatically: (1+2+2+2+3+3+4+5+6+6+7+8+9)/13 = 4.31.

Median - the number that falls in the center of a list of data when scores are ordered by value. The median is not affected by the relative size of extreme scores. The median in the data set above is 4. Changing the 99 to 9 has no effect on the median.

Mode - the number that occurs most frequently in a group of scores. The mode in the data set above is 2.

Range - the range is the difference between the highest and lowest score. In the sample data set above, the range is 99-1 or 98.

Sample Weights - sample weights should be utilized if the sample design or survey return rate does allow for a fair representation of the total population. Survey weights can also help correct for non-response issues in analysis.

Profile of Child Care Centers: Key Findings

The term child care center can apply to many types of programs. In addition to full-day, full-year center-based child care programs, the term child care center can also refer to preschools, nursery schools, Head Start programs, before-and after-school programs, and state-funded Preschool for All pre-kindergarten programs. Each of these programs has a legal designation (for-profit or not-for-profit) and a regulatory status (licensed or license-exempt). These programs also have public funding sources (IDHS, Head Start, Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE)) and/or private funding sources (parent tuition fees, corporate sponsors, United Way, faith-based sponsor). Center programs may be housed in one facility or some operate multiple sites. Some are affiliated with employers; some are affiliated with colleges and universities. Others are stand alone private enterprises. Depending on all of the above factors, the qualifications and professional development requirements of the staff in these programs can vary widely. This complexity of programs and terms presents a host of challenges to our research, and all of these programs are included in this survey.

From the 3,196 invitations sent to child care centers, 573 online surveys were completed and an additional 29 paper and pencil surveys were completed. Thus 602 center surveys were completed out of 3,196 delivered invitations, for a response rate of 18.84%. Table 1 presents response rates by CCR&R service delivery area (SDA) (see Appendix B).

Note that all statistics (mean, median, etc.) and percentages reported were calculated with weighted samples.

Table 1. Survey Return Rates by Service Delivery Area: Child Care Centers

Service Delivery Area CCR&R Office Location Number of Centers Number of Surveys Completed Percentage of Surveys Completed
SDA 1 Rockford 64 22 34.38%
SDA 2 DeKalb 147 31 21.09%
SDA 3 Waukegan 189 32 16.93%
SDA 4 Glen Ellyn 339 69 20.35%
SDA 5 Joliet 188 47 25.00%
SDA 6 Chicago 1,313 155 11.81%
SDA 7 Davenport 83 32 38.55%
SDA 8 Peoria 154 44 28.57%
SDA 9 Bloomington 79 23 29.11%
SDA 10 Urbana 105 27 25.71%
SDA 11 Charleston 38 9 23.68%
SDA 12 Quincy 30 5 16.67%
SDA 13 Springfield 100 21 21.00%
SDA 14 Granite City 216 46 21.30%
SDA 15 Mt Vernon 68 16 23.53%
SDA 16 Carterville 83 23 27.71%
Totals 3,196 602 18.84%

Respondent Role

Of the 602 centers responding to the survey, 43 (7.14%) were completed by owners, 110 (18.27%) by owner/directors, 308 (51.16%) by directors 72 (11.96%) by director/teachers, and 52 (8.64%) by other personnel, including assistant/associate directors, human resources personnel, business/fiscal personnel, executive directors, and site directors. Seventeen (2.82%) of those completing the surveys for licensed child care centers did not report a title. Child care center directors were asked to report basic information about their programs. (For the remainder of the report, we will use director as a generic term for referring to child care center survey respondents).

Type of Child Care Center

Directors were asked to describe their center type based on hours and days of operation. Out of the 602 surveys returned,

  • 45.18% of centers (272) identified themselves as full-day/full-year only (at least 49 weeks) programs,
  • 25.25% (152) identified themselves as full-day/full-year programs with a separate part-day option,
  • 22.09% (133) identified themselves as part-day only nursery school, preschool or Head Start,
  • 1.83% (11) identified themselves as part-day before- and/or after-school programs,
  • 1.83% (11) identified themselves as full-day, school year (less than 49 weeks) programs,
  • 2.99% (18) identified themselves as some other type of program, and
  • 0.83% (5) did not identify their type of center.

For the remainder of this report, unless otherwise noted, full-day programs are combined with part-day programs for all analyses.

Asked whether their centers were sponsored by faith-based organizations, 433 respondents (71.10%) indicated No, their centers were not sponsored by faith-based organizations, 166 respondents (27.57%) answered Yes, and 8 (1.33%) did not answer the item.

Over three quarters of center directors (78.57%, n=475) indicated that theirs were single-site programs; 21.10% (n=124) were part of a multi-site program, and 1.33% (n=8) did not report whether or not their center was single or multi-site.

Center Program Revenues

Directors were also asked to characterize their centers as regards profit/non-profit status. Of the 602 centers:

  • 240 were for-profit enterprises:
    • 20.43% (123) were characterized as for profit- corporation or chain;
    • 18.27% (110) were characterized as for profit- private proprietary or partnership;
    • 1.16% (7) were characterized as for profit- corporate sponsored;
  • 278 were described as private non-profit:
    • 36.54% (220) of centers were characterized as private non-profit- independent;
    • 9.63% (58) were characterized as private non-profit- affiliated with a social service agency or hospital;
  • 57 were identified as public non-profit:
    • 8.64% (52) were characterized as public non-profit- sponsored by federal, state, or local government;
    • Less than 1% (5) were identified as part of a public school;
  • 20 (3.22%) were identified as college or university affiliated; and
  • 7 (1.16%) of center directors did not respond to this item.

Center directors were asked to report all types of revenue sources for their child care center programs. Table 2 presents the percentage of centers who report receiving revenues from a given source. As Table 2 shows, the majority of centers (over 90%) reported receiving at least some portion of their funding from tuition and/or parent fees. The next most prevalent source of funding was from IDHS vouchers or certificates (64%).

Table 2. Type of Center Program Revenues (N = 602)

Type of Program Revenue Percentage N
Tuition-Based (Parent Fees) 91.86% 553
Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS) vouchers or certificates 63.95% 385
Chicago Department of Family and Support Services (FSS) site contract 3.16% 19
Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) vouchers or certificates 47.84% 288
Head Start 10.47% 63
State Board of Education (ISBE)/Preschool for All (PFA) 16.28% 98
Federally Funded Food Program 42.19% 254
Private Donations 36.71% 221
Corporate/employer subsidies 5.81% 35
Other (fundraisers, church sponsorship, grants,…) 7.14% 43

Note: This table should be read as follows: 91.86 % of licensed child care centers received revenues from tuition or parent fees.  Percentages above add up to greater than 100% as respondents were asked to endorse all items applicable to their programs. Percentages based upon weighted sample.

Table 2 presents how many centers receive funds of a given type and/or from a given source. In a separate question, directors also indicated how much each revenue source contributed to the overall center budget. Not only do most centers (over 92%) receive funds from tuition, but tuition and parent fees make up the largest single portion of funding for the majority of centers. Directors reported that an average of 67.11 percent (n = 519 of 602 respondents completing this item; median = 80 %, with a range from 0 to 100%) of center revenue came from parent fees.

Directors reported that an average of 23.43 percent (n = 146; median = 0%; range = 0 to 100%) of revenue came from Head Start funds. They reported that 11.81 percent (n = 155; median = 5.0%; range = 0 to 100%) of revenue came from Preschool for All funds. They indicated that an average of 31.76 percent (n = 356; median = 25.0%; range = 0 to 100%) of revenue came from other public (state, federal, or local) funding sources. Responding directors reported that an average of 7.58 percent (n = 264; median = 5.0%; range = 0 to 80%) of revenue came from private donations or gifts. They said that an average of 4.03 percent (n = 108; median = 0.5%; range = 0 to 60%) of revenue came from corporate/employer subsidies. Directors reported that an average of 8.57 percent (n = 102; median = 0.5%; range = 0 to 100%) of funds came from other sources.

Overall, the annual operating budgets reported by directors varied greatly. The average operating expenses were $450,161.30 (n=402 respondents completing this item), with a median of $300,000.00. Directors reported average annual revenues of $458,699.10 (n=395 respondents completing this item) with a median of $317,800.00. Calculating net profit as revenues minus costs revealed again a large range. The average profit per center was $17,120.10 (n=377 respondents). (A number of responding centers were dropped from this and some subsequent analyses. Because we asked respondents if their center was part of a multi-site agency, a number of respondents may have been cued to report on their entire agency. Where this was the case, this respondent was dropped from the analyses. In addition, a number of centers did not respond to questions about their finances.)

As stated previously, the term child care center encompasses an array of programs and facilities, public and private, for-profit and not-for-profit. To report a single figure for revenues or expenses that represents the fiscal experience of child care centers in Illinois obscures the varied nature of child care. Table 3 presents the operating costs, revenues, and profits of licensed Illinois child care centers by profit/nonprofit status and affiliation. The table reveals that fiscally, the outcomes of child care centers are as varied as the centers themselves. Not surprisingly, corporate for-profit centers do turn a profit, but public and nonprofit centers make considerably less and often operate in the red.

This year's survey was conducted during one of the most severe economic downturns in United States history. Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) agencies, child care advocates, local, state, and national media have all documented the impact of the economic crisis on child care. To capture some of these effects, this year's Salary and Staffing Survey included a number of items asking respondents to characterize the change in their operations during the two years since the previous survey. Regarding operating cost and revenues, we asked respondents to what extent both revenues and operating costs had changed in the previous two years. On a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 = Decreased Greatly to 5 = Increased Greatly, respondents rated the change in operating costs as 3.77 on average (n=541; median=4). Respondents rated the change in their revenues as 2.95 on average (n=526; median=3). As 3 on the rating scale translated into Stayed about the same, respondents perceived essentially no change in their revenues over the past two years, but rated operating costs as a median 4 or Increased.

Table 3. Annual Operating Costs, Revenues, and Profits by Profit/Non-Profit Status, Licensed Child Care Centers

Type of Center

Revenues

Mean

Revenues

n

Operating Costs

Mean

Operating Costs

n

Profit

Mean

Profit

n

For Profit- private proprietary or partnership $395,379 60 $358,552 58 $21,235 54
For Profit-corporation or chain $546.219 83 $450,767 82 $83,894 76
For Profit-corporate sponsored $572,169 4 $419,818 5 $77,062 4
Private nonprofit-independent $373,797 167 $374,354 171 $5,571 163
Private nonprofit-affiliated with a social service agency or hospital $781,578 38 $836,171 38 $-54,593 38
Public nonprofit- sponsored by federal, state, or local govrnmt. $516,886 24 $683,879 28 $9,341 23
College or university affiliated $305,200 16 $338,775 17 $-27,561 16
Other $355,000 3 $363,000 3 $8,000 3
All $458,699 395 $450,161 402 $17,120 377

Accreditation

Data from national accreditation websites show of the total 3196 licensed child care centers, 409 (12.30%) were accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC; http://www.naeyc.org/accreditation/search) as of October 5, 2009; 9 of 3196 (.28%) were accredited by the National AfterSchool Association (NAA; http://naaweb.yourmembership.com/?page=AccreditedPrograms) as of August, 2009; 35 of 3196 (1.10%) licensed child care centers were accredited by the National Association of Child Care Professionals (NACCP; http://www.naccp.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=639; Website accessed 10/7/2009.); and 14 of 3196 (.44%) were accredited by the National Early Childhood Program Accreditation (NECPA; http://www.necpa.net/AcreditedPrograms.htm; Website accessed 10/7/2009).

Of the 602 centers responding to the survey, 38 (13.8%) were accredited by NAEYC, 4 (1.5%) by NAA, 0 by NACCP, and 3 (1.1%) by NECPA.

Note: INCCRRAs data set of 3,196 licensed child care centers was drawn on December 31, 2008. Centers may have become accredited or lost accreditation between that date and the dates accreditation websites were accessed.

Capacity and Enrollment Patterns

The licensed capacity of programs was obtained from the INCCRRA database. Of the 602 responding centers the mean total licensed capacity was 80.85 children, with a median licensed capacity of 70. This compares to a mean of 70.38 children (median=56) for the 2,594 centers that did not complete the survey. (For the population as a whole, the 3,196 centers averaged 72.33 children (median = 59). The difference in total licensed capacity between the centers who participated and those who did not was statistically significant, F 1,3195 = 20.71, p<.0001.)

Respondents were asked to report the current total enrollment of their programs. Responding centers (n=558) reported an average current total enrollment of 91.98 children, with a median current total enrollment of 75. Enrollments can exceed total licensed capacity as counts may be made across multiple shifts and/or include children who attend programs on a part time basis.

Most (88.42%; n=477) of centers indicated that they accepted children whose families receive Illinois Department of Human Services (IDHS), Chicago Department of Family and Support Services (FSS), and/or Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (IDCFS) financial assistance (subsidy). Of those centers who accepted children with child care assistance, they reported having an average of 39.70 children enrolled who receive such assistance, with a median enrollment of 17.

For each center that accepted children with child care assistance, the number of subsidized children enrolled was divided by current total enrollment (n = 440 valid cases) to determine the percentage of subsidized children enrolled. On average, 33.94 percent (median=25.00 percent, with a range of from 0 to 100 percent) of children in licensed child care centers were receiving some sort of the above types of public financial assistance for care.

Respondents were asked to describe their enrollment patterns by rating on a scale from 1 ('There are always vacancies') to 5 ('There are never vacancies') how frequently they had vacancies in their programs. Responding centers (n=558) reported an average rating of 2.64, (with a median of 3.0). Table 4 displays enrollment patterns.

Respondents were also asked how their enrollments had changed over the past two years, on a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 = Decreased Greatly to 5 = Increased Greatly. Respondents rated the change in their enrollments as 2.64 on average (n=558; median=3), somewhere between Decreased Somewhat (2 on the rating scale) and Stayed About the Same (3 on the scale).

Table 4. Enrollment Patterns (N = 558)

Enrollment Pattern Percentage n
1 (There are always vacancies) 17.0% 121
2 (There are often vacancies) 16.7% 104
3 (There are sometime vacancies) 27.7% 201
4 (There are rarely vacancies) 29.2% 124
5 (There are never vacancies) 9.6% 11

Ethnicity of Children in Programs

Directors estimated that, on average, 22.50 percent (median = 5%; range = 0 to 100%) of the children in their programs were African-American, 71.24 percent (median = 84%; range = 0 to 100%) were Caucasian/White, 10.83 percent (median = 4%; range = 0 to 99%) were Hispanic/Latino, 1.17 percent (median = 0%; range = 0 to 75%) were Native American, 5.43 percent (median = 2%; range = 0 to 80%) were Asian/Pacific Islander, 6.04 percent (median = 4%; range = 0 to 70%) were multi-racial, and 7.25 percent (median = 1%; range = 0 to 75%) were of other racial/ethnic groups.

Almost half (49.73%; n=279 of 561 respondents answering the question) of directors indicated that they had children in their programs whose primary language is not English. Languages represented included Spanish, French, German, Polish, Lithuanian, Albanian, Serbian, Russian, Bulgarian, Arabic, Farsi, Tagalog, Karen, Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan languages (among them Urdu, Hindi, Gujarati, Bengali), Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin), Japanese, Korean, Thai, Vietnamese, Romanian, Nigerian and other African languages, Hebrew, Turkish, Ukrainian, Yugoslavian, Portuguese, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Latvian, Mongolian, Marathi, and Tamil.

Spanish was the most prevalent language, with 203 (33.72%) of the 602 respondents indicating that they had children in their programs whose primary language was Spanish. The languages of Indian and Pakistan were mentioned by 100 (16.61%) directors. About one in ten directors reported that they had children in their programs whose primary language was either Chinese (10.13%), or Polish (9.47%). Identifying the languages his/her children spoke, one director responded:

3 Indian languages, German, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese; about 50% to 70% of the children are international.

Staffing Patterns

Directors were asked to report the number of staff they employed, including full- and part-time teachers, administrative staff, and support staff. While we recognize that many centers use a variety of titles for employees in their programs, we used the six center staff positions defined in the IDCFS licensing standards (see Appendix C) to maximize comparability across centers. The remaining staff categories included in the survey were based on frequently cited other positions reported in past surveys. Table 5 presents the staffing patterns of responding centers along with the number of centers reporting each staffing category.

Table 5. Breakdown of Center Staff by Position

Position Number of Employees Number of Centers with 1 or more staff members of the designated title # of Employees (Mean) # of Employees (Median)
DCFS-Defined Positions
Administrative Director 460 391 1.18 1.00
Director/Teacher (must meet the qualifications of both the director position and the teaching position) 501 354 1.42 1.00
Early Childhood Teacher 3,384 481 7.04 6.00
Early Childhood Assistant 2,007 440 4.56 3.00
School-Age Worker 340 182 1.87 1.00
School-Age Assistant 153 92 1.66 1.00
Other Positions Reported
Curriculum Coordinator 55 50 1.10 1.00
Family Support/Parent Educator 86 53 1.62 1.00
Cook 314 314 1.67 1.00
Administrative Support/Secretary 201 201 1.23 1.00
Building Support Staff 233 233 1.37 1.00
Other 188 55 3.24 1.00

Note: Centers that appeared to have been responding about their multi-site agency as a whole were dropped from analyses. These included those centers described in the previous section on operating costs as well as some centers that provided invalid responses or no response. The operative sample was reduced from 602 to 514.

The average child care center employs 15.41 staff members, the majority (87.81%) in IDCFS-defined positions. Early childhood teachers represented the single largest category of child care center staff. In the average center, teachers are on 42.88 percent of all staff and 48.65 percent of all DCFS-defined instructional positions.

Consistent with some other investigations of the child care workforce, we also asked directors to report how many of their staff were lead teachers, defined as:

The lead teacher is the individual with the highest educational qualifications assigned to teach a group/classroom of children and who is responsible for daily lesson planning, parent conferences, child assessment, and curriculum planning.

  • Depending on the program, this individual may be called a head teacher, master teacher, or teacher.
  • Each group/classroom will have one, and only one, lead teacher.

Of the 602 surveys completed (which includes part-time programs), 502 provided information about lead teachers. Child care centers averaged 5.41 lead teachers, with a median of 5.

Of the 602 responding directors, 27.08 percent indicated that they contracted for food service, 38.88 percent contracted for building cleaning, 31.06 percent contracted for grounds maintenance, and 6.81 percent indicated that they contracted for other services. Among the 41 respondents contracting for other services, 9 indicated that they contracted for pest control/extermination, the single most mentioned other service.

Directors were asked How many of your instructional staff have a second paying job outside of your center? Four hundred forty-seven responded to the question, with 183 answering Don't Know. Of the 264 who answered the question with a number, almost 80 percent (79.09%) indicated that at least one member of their instructional staff had such an outside job. The 264 directors who answered reported that on average, almost 2 (mean=1.89; median=2; range = from 0 to 10) of their instructional staff had an outside paying job. The average center reported that almost one in 5 (18.54%) of their instructional staff worked in a second outside paying job (median=14.29%, with a range from 0 to 100% ).

Male Staff

Historically, early childhood education has not been an avenue of employment for men. Recently, however, there have been a number of calls to attract men into the field. Nationally, approximately 3 percent of early childhood personnel are male. Table 6 presents the number of male staff members by position for the sample of 514 centers (see note on Table 5) who provided data on the question How many staff in your program are male? While almost one quarter (23.35%) of centers employed one or more male staff members in an instructional capacity, only 2.98 percent (204 of the 6845 instructional staff identified by these 514 centers) of instructional staff were male, close to the national figure.

Table 6. Male Center Staff by Position

Position Total Number of Employees Number of Male Employees Percent of all Employees Who are Male Number of Centers (with 1 or more staff members of the designated title) Number of Centers with Male Staff (1 or more staff members of the designated title) Percent of all Centers Who Employ Male Staff (with 1 or more staff members of the designated title)
Administrative Director 460 15 3.26% 391 14 3.58%
Director/Teacher2 501 14 2.79% 354 13 3.67%
Early Childhood Teacher 3,384 67 1.98% 481 40 8.32%
Early Childhood Assistant 2,007 44 2.19% 440 37 8.41%
School-Age Worker 340 46 13.53% 182 38 20.88%
School-Age Assistant 153 18 11.76% 92 18 19.57%
All Positions 6845 204 2.98% 514 120 23.35%

Note: Percentage of centers with 1 or more male staff members of the designated title. Should be read as Of the 391 centers who had administrative directors, 14 or 3.58 percent had a male administrative director.See Note on Table 5

Non-English Fluency of Staff

It was reported previously that almost half of responding centers reported caring for at least one child whose primary language was other than English. In order to gauge staff capacity in speaking a language other than English, we asked directors to indicate how many of their staff were fluent in a non-English language. Table 7 presents the results of this inquiry. Approximately 10 percent (10.42%) of the 6,845 instructional staff identified by 514 programs were reported to be fluent in a language other than English. Slightly more than 2 of every 5 centers had at least one staff member who was fluent in a non-English language.

Languages in which staff were fluent were the same that were reported spoken by children in the centers: Spanish, French, German, Polish, Lithuanian, Albanian, Serbian, Russian, Bulgarian, Arabic, Farsi, Tagalog, Karen, Indian and Pakistani languages (among them Urdu, Hindi, Gujarati (but not Bengali)), Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin), Japanese, Korean, Thai, Vietnamese, Romanian, Nigerian and other African languages, Hebrew, Turkish, Ukrainian, Yugoslavian, Portuguese, Italian, Danish, Swedish, Latvian, Mongolian, Marathi, and Tamil. Again, Spanish was the most frequently reported non-English language of staff members, with 30.23 percent of centers indicating that they had at least one staff member fluent in Spanish. No other single language was represented by more than 6 percent of centers. However, 12.47 percent of centers reported that at least one staff member was fluent in one of the languages of Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka.

Table 7. Number of Staff who Speak a Non-English Language by Position

Position Total Number of Employees Number of Employees Percent of Employees With Non-English Fluency Number of Centers with 1 or more staff members of the designated title Number of Centers With 1 or more staff members of the designated title fluent in a Non-English language Percent of all Centers Who Employ 1 or more staff members of the designated title fluent in a Non-English language
Administrative Director 460 34 7.39% 391 32 8.18%
Director/Teacher2 501 52 10.38% 354 42 11.86%
Early Childhood Teacher 3384 349 10.31% 481 154 32.02%
Early Childhood Assistant 2007 226 11.26% 440 115 26.14%
School-Age Worker 340 26 7.65% 182 21 11.54%
School-Age Assistant 153 26 16.99% 92 9 9.78%
All Positions 6845 713 10.42% 514 211 41.05%

Note: Percentage of centers with 1 or more staff members of the designated title who are fluent in a non-English language. Should be read as Of the 391 centers who had administrative directors, 32 or 8.18 percent had an administrative director who is fluent in a language other than English.  See note on Table 5.

Professional Development

Directors were asked about their awareness of and staff participation in professional development opportunities and programs available in Illinois. The Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship Program provides partial funding for college scholarships for both center and family child care providers in an effort to increase the educational levels of practitioners, promote increased practitioner compensation, and improve the consistency of care for children. The Great START (Strategies to Attract and Retain Teachers) program is the wage supplement program that aims to increase child care practitioner retention while encouraging increased education levels. The Gateways to Opportunity Illinois Professional Development System is recognized for promoting quality and professionalism for early care and education, school-age and youth practitioners. The Professional Development Advisor (PDA) program pairs experienced mentors with less experienced practitioners to help them meet professional development goals. Gateways also administers credentials for ECE practitioners. The Quality Counts-Quality Rating System (QRS) recognizes Illinois child care providers for meeting specific indicators of quality and assists them by providing technical assistance, training and supports.

One director commented: We currently have 11 staff members that are receiving Great START. This program is such a great benefit to our employees.

Out of 602 total child care centers/agencies in the sample,

  • 90.70 percent (n=517) of the 570 directors who responded to the question reported they had heard of the Great START program;
  • 88.38 percent (n=502) of 568 responding directors had heard of the Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship (formerly T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood ® Program) program;
  • 84.98 percent (n=481) of 566 responding directors had heard of the Gateways to Opportunity Credentials program;
  • 56.33%; (n=316 of the 561 responding directors) had heard of the Professional Development Advisor program; and
  • 88.08 percent (n=495 of 562 directors responding) had heard of the Quality Counts-Quality Rating System.
  • 51.6% (n=361) have had at least one Great START recipient in the past two years. Those 361 programs have had a total of 1556 Great START recipients.
  • 7.6 percent (n=53) had at least one Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship (formerly T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood ® Program) recipient for a total of 69 recipients.
  • 65.8 percent (n=396) of the 602 directors who responded to the question reported they have a staff professional development plan for their center.
  • 57.7 percent (n=346) of the 600 directors who responded to the question reported they have an individual staff professional development plan for their teaching/instruction staff.
  • 92.0 percent (n=554) of the 602 directors who responded to the question reported they have in-service training opportunities for their instructional staff.
  • 83.5 percent (n=501) of the 600 directors who responded to the question reported they pay for conference training or registration.

Of the 567 directors who responded to the item Do you have a salary scale that you share with your staff? 48.6 percent (n=267) indicated that they did. When asked how salary scales were differentiated (one item on scale differentiation by educational level, was corrupted in the web survey and not reported here; past surveys have indicated that 80-90% of centers differentiated their salary scale by education as at least one factor):

  • 58.14 percent (n=350 of 602 respondents) reported a salary scale differentiated by level of experience,
  • 54.98 percent (n=331 of 602 respondents) reported a salary scale differentiated by additional or supplemental training, and
  • 15.45 percent (93 of 602) reported a salary scale differentiated on some other basis. Among the other bases for a salary scale were: length of employment/years of service, union contracts, pay grades set by campus/college human resources, job title/position description, minimum wage, responsibility, and seniority.

Staff Turnover

Turnover Rates

One of the factors positively related to high quality child care is the stability of the child care workforce. In order to assess stability, we asked directors a series of questions related to staff turnover, applicants, and new hires.

Turnover was measured in two ways with the data collected from this survey. First, directors were asked how many permanent full- and part-time staff members - not temporary, substitute or seasonal staff - left their programs in the last 24 months. Table 8 compares the number of centers who had staff leave to the number of centers employing each position to determine the turnover rate at the center level.

Table 8. Two-year Center Level Turnover Rate by Position

Position # of Centers that reported employing at least one staff member of the indicated position. (see table 5) # of Centers Who Had Staff Leave in Past 24 Months (see note) Center Level Turnover Rate
Administrative Director 391 49 12.53%
Director/Teacher 354 56 15.82%
Early Childhood Teacher 481 285 59.25%
Early Childhood Assistant 440 243 55.23%
School-Age Worker 182 53 29.12%
School-Age Assistant 92 20 21.74%

Note: This table should be read, 12.53 percent of centers employing Administrative Directors had one or more Administrative Directors leave their position in the past 24 months.

A second measure was used to assess turnover on an individual position level for each staff position. The individual position turnover rate was calculated using the number of employees who had left the previous two years compared to the number of current employees in that position. The individual position turnover rate, displayed in Table 9, tells us for every 100 hundred employees currently working now, how many staff left in that position over the past two years.

Table 9. Two-year Individual Position Level Turnover Rate by Position

Position Number of Employees (from Table 5) # Staff Who Left in Past 24 Months (from Table 5) Position Turnover Rate
Administrative Director 460 63 13.70%
Director/Teacher 501 92 18.36%
Early Childhood Teacher 3,384 936 27.66%
Early Childhood Assistant 2,007 790 39.36%
School-Age Worker 340 123 36.18%
School-Age Assistant 153 68 44.44%

Note: This table should be read For every 100 Administrative Directors working in FY09, 13.7 Administrative Directors left within the two years preceding the survey.

Because these data are comparable over the past surveys, we present the individual position turnover rates for the past seven surveys in Table 10. In the FY97-FY01 surveys, these turnover rates were called replacement rates.

Table 10. Two-year Turnover Rate (Individual Position Level) by Position (FY97 - FY09)

Position FY97 FY99 FY01 FY03 FY05 FY07 FY09
Administrative Director 24 23 19 21 15 12 14
Director/Teacher 30 25 44 30 23 19 18
Early Childhood Teacher 43 45 51 38 32 28 28
Early Childhood Assistant 69 54 62 55 53 41 39
School-Age Worker 56 50 100 43 31 37 36
School-Age Assistant --- 54 119 56 18 24 44

Note: This table should be read For every 100 Administrative Directors working in FY09, 14 Administrative Directors left in the two years preceding the survey.

Over the course of the ten years from FY97 through FY07, we see individual turnover rates largely declining for all positions . In FY09, turnover rates appear to be declining somewhat or leveling off.

Staff Turnover Reasons

In an effort to understand why child care employees leave their programs, directors were asked For each category of employee who left your program in the last 24 months, how important… were each of the following reasons for leaving your specific program?

  1. Took another position within our agency/organization
  2. Found a new job in another child care center
  3. Found a new job unrelated to child care or education
  4. Dissatisfied - pay
  5. Dissatisfied - benefits
  6. Dissatisfied - professional development opportunities
  7. Dissatisfied - schedule
  8. Terminated / Fired
  9. Laid off
  10. Retired
  11. Personal
  12. Other (specify)

Table 11 presents the percentage of centers losing staff for which respondents were asked to rank the specified reason on a scale of importance. For example, for the centers reporting that an Administrative Director left in the previous 24 months, 10.5% indicated that Finding a new job in child care was a reason (important to very important) why they left their positions.

Except for Administrative Directors, individuals turnover rates were consistently higher in FY01. In that year, data were based on full-time, full-year programs only as the survey served as a source of baseline data for the Great START program evaluation.

Respondents were asked to use the following 5-point scale: 1 = Not Important to 5 = Very Important.

Table 11: The Percentage of Directors Reporting on Importance of Reason for Leaving by Position

Reason for Leaving Admin. Director Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant Teacher School-Age Worker Assistant School-Age Worker
Took another position within our agency/organization 9.7 11.1 20.1 14.9 8.5 8.7
Found a new job in another child care center 10.5 14.1 36.8 22.8 9.6 9.7
Found a new job in public schools 8.2 10.0 27.4 17.0 12.6 10.2
Found a new job unrelated to child care or education 9.4 10.0 29.3 27.3 9.8 8.8
Dissatisfied - pay 7.5 9.3 24.3 21.3 8.9 8.8
Dissatisfied - benefits 8.2 8.5 22.7 15.7 6.9 7.8
Dissatisfied - professional development opportunities 7.1 7.7 14.9 11.6 6.5 7.8
Dissatisfied - schedule 6.7 7.7 19.6 16.5 9.3 7.8
Terminated / Fired 12.4 12.6 3.0 27.6 7.7 9.7
Laid off 8.2 8.5 17.9 14.9 8.1 4.1
Retired 8.6 7.4 18.2 12.7 7.7 7.8
Personal 9.7 10.7 29.8 27.1 7.7 8.8
Other 5.2 6.3 12.6 10.1 7.3 7.4

When looking at the reported turnover reasons by each position in Table 11, there appear to be both similarities and differences between staff in the reasons reported for their leaving their positions. In particular, dissatisfaction with professional development opportunities appears not to be, according to directors, a reason staff leave their centers. On the other hand, dissatisfaction with pay and personal reasons were, according to directors, reasons that a number of staff left their centers. Both these results are consistent with past survey results. It must be emphasized, however, that the survey was completed by someone other than the staff member him/herself who left. It is uncertain as to what extent respondents may accurately represent the importance of each reason to the actual staff member.

In response to the question of staff turnover directors reported:

If a person is lead teacher qualified and continues with her education, staying in a child care center that does not pay well is not smart. People will move on to the school districts because they have better salaries and better benefits.

Staff turnover is high due to low salaries.

Applicants for Vacant Positions

We asked directors (n=514) a series of questions about filling vacant positions. First, directors were asked to report how many DCFS qualified applicants, how many program qualified applicants (e.g., met Head Start program qualifications), and how many non-qualified applicants they had for each position. Table 12 presents the number of applicants who applied for each position and the percentage of each who were qualified or not. As Table 12 shows, the majority of applicants were either DCFS or program qualified.

Table 12. Percentage of applicants by position by qualifications

Qualification Status Admin. Director Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant Teacher School-Age Worker Assistant School-Age Worker
DCFS-qualified applicants 74.01% 57.72% 56.72% 64.67% 57.19% 55.80%
Program-qualified applicants 3.71% 7.10% 8.82% 5.32% 9.27% 1.38%
Non-qualified applicants 22.27% 26.45% 34.46% 30.01% 24.36% 50.58%
Total number of applicants 431 324 4568 3875 313 509

Directors (n=514) were asked to report on the average length of time it took to fill a vacant position. For each position they were asked to respond on the following 4-point scale: 1=Less than one week; 2=1-2 weeks; 3=3-4 weeks; 4=More than 4 weeks. The average response for filling Administrative Directors vacancies was 2.65 (n=48 directors completing this item), for Director/Teachers 2.68 (n=65), for Teachers 2.76 (n=291), for Assistant Teachers 2.32 (n=244), for School-Age Workers 2.52 (n=71), and for School-Age Assistants, 2.28 (n=39). A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the mean length of time to fill vacancies did not vary significantly (p=.05) by position.

Next, directors (n=514) were asked to report on how the length of time to fill a vacancy has changed over the past two years. For each position they were asked to respond on the following 5-point scale: 1=Decreased by more than 2 weeks; 2=Decreased by 1-2 weeks; 3=Stayed the same; 4=Increased by 1-2 weeks; 5=Increased by more than 2 weeks. Results indicated that the time to fill vacancies, relative to two years ago, has stayed approximately the same for all positions. For Administrative Directors the mean rating was 3.17 (n=64 directors completing this item), for Director/Teachers 3.23 (n=96), for Teachers 3.29 (n=263), for Assistant Teachers 3.07 (n=240), for School-Age Workers 3.03 (n=92), and for School-Age Assistants, 2.97 (n=66). A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the mean change in length of time to fill vacancies did not significantly vary (p=.05) by position.

Asked how easy or difficult it has been to fill positions during the previous two years, (using the following 5-point scale 1=Very Easy; 2=Somewhat Easy; 3=Neither Easy or Difficult; 4=Somewhat Difficult; 5=Very Difficult, directors (n=514) reported the results displayed in Table 13. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the ease or difficulty to fill vacancies varied significantly (p<.05) by position. Directors felt that it was significantly more difficult to fill administrative director and teacher positions than it was to fill assistant teacher, school age worker and assistant school age positions (p<.05) and to fill director/teacher positions than it was to fill assistant teacher positions (p<.05).

Table 13. Mean rating of difficulty in filling program staff by position.

POSITION MEAN RATING
Admin. Director 3.39 (n=71)
Director/Teacher 3.49 (n=111)
Teacher 3.46 (n=315)
Assistant Teacher 2.81 (n=284)
School-Age Worker 3.14 (n=107)
Assistant School-Age Worker 2.79 (n=84)

Hires for Vacant Positions

Specifically, directors were asked to indicate how many hires (versus applicants) for each of six positions met, exceeded, or did not meet DCFS qualifications. As Table 14 shows, except for Administrative Directors, hires were more likely to meet than to exceed DCFS qualifications.

Table 14. Percentage of hires in the past year meeting or exceeding DCFS qualifications.

Position Met DCFS Qualifications  # CENTERS RESPONDING Met DCFS Qualifications  # HIRES Met DCFS Qualifications  % Exceeded DCFS Qualifications  # CENTERS RESPONDING Exceeded DCFS Qualifications  # HIRES Exceeded DCFS Qualifications  PERCENTAGE Did Not Meet DCFS Qualifications  # CENTERS RESPONDING Did Not Meet DCFS Qualifications  # HIRES Did Not Meet DCFS Qualifications  PERCENTAGE
Administrative Director 38 52 46.02 48 61 53.98 23 0 0.00
Director/Teacher 70 74 53.62 62 64 46.38 22 0 0.00
Early Childhood Teacher 178 509 55.21 162 413 44.79 29 11 1.18
Early Childhood Assistant 196 566 67.06 101 230 28.89 32 26 3.16
School-Age Worker 72 100 51.02 36 34 25.37 25 4 2.90
School-Age Assistant 50 51 22.77 30 11 17.74 24 3 4.62

Note: Percentages may not equal 100% in the rows

Directors were asked to rate how the qualifications of new hires have changed in the last two years. They were presented with the following 5-point response scale: 1=Much Less Qualified; 2=Somewhat Less Qualified; 3=Same Qualifications; 4=Somewhat More Qualified; 5=Much More Qualified. Table 15 shows that on average, directors rated the majority of new hires to be slightly more qualified. There was no significant (p<.05) relationship between position and perceived changes in new hire qualifications.

Table 15. Perceived changes in qualifications of new hires in the past two years by position.

Position # of Centers Responding to Item Mean Median
Administrative Director 67 3.5 3
Director/Teacher 86 3.5 3
Early Childhood Teacher 233 3.3 3
Early Childhood Assistant 85 3.2 4
School-Age Worker 75 3.2 3
School-Age Assistant 58 3. 2 3

Mean was calculated using: 1=Much Less Qualified; 2=Somewhat Less Qualified;3=Same Qualifications; 4=Somewhat More Qualified; 5=Much More Qualified.

Male Applicants

Directors (n=514) were asked to report how many men applied for vacant positions within their programs during the previous two years.

Table 16. Number of male applicants for vacant positions in the previous two years.

Position # of Center
Responding to Item
Average number of male
applicants in past two years
Administrative Director 147 .9
Director/Teacher 148 1.4
Early Childhood Teacher 268 9.2
Early Childhood Assistant 213 5.8
School-Age Worker 150 5.9
School-Age Assistant 139 6.3

As Table 16 shows, fewer male applicants applied for vacant director/teacher and director positions than for other positions.

Table 17. Number of male applicants hired for vacant positions in the previous two years.

Position # of Centers
Responding to Item
Average number of male
applicants hired in past two years
Administrative Director 197 .1
Director/Teacher 201 .3
Early Childhood Teacher 241 2.7
Early Childhood Assistant 238 2.3
School-Age Worker 215 4.1
School-Age Assistant 200 2.6

As Table 17 shows, fewer male applicants were hired for vacant director/teacher and director positions than for other positions.

Applicants Fluent in Language Other Than English

Table 18. Number of applicants fluent in a language other than English who applied for vacant positions in the previous two years.

Position # of Centers Responding
to Item
Average number of applicants fluent in a 
language other than English in past two years
Administrative Director 133 1.4
Director/Teacher 135 1.4
Early Childhood Teacher 248 11.9
Early Childhood Assistant 214 12.9
School-Age Worker 130 3.6
School-Age Assistant 123 4.6

As noted in Table 18, early childhood education positions attracted the majority of applicants who were fluent in a language other than English (see page 20 for list of languages).

Table 19. Number of applicants fluent in a language other than English who were hired for vacant positions in the previous two years.

Position # of Centers Responding to Item Average number of applicants fluent in a language other than English hired in past two years
Administrative Director 182 .3
Director/Teacher 185 .6
Early Childhood Teacher 262 6.2
Early Childhood Assistant 231 5.2
School-Age Worker 182 1.7
School-Age Assistant 171 1.2

As noted in Table 19, a greater number of applicants who were fluent in a language other than English were hired in early childhood positions than in either positions of leadership or in school-age positions.

Attraction to Child Care Careers and Employment

To assess the reasons why directors think applicants are not attracted to child care vacancies, they were asked to rate a list of reasons on a scale from Not important (1) to Very Important (5). As Table 20 shows, career opportunities not known and openings not advertised received the lowest ratings. The reasons that garnered the highest ratings by directors were low salaries and inadequate benefits.

Table 20. Reasons Applicants Not Attracted to Employment in Child Care

Reason Not Attracted Number of
Centers Responding
Mean Median
Career Opportunities Not Known 496 3.12 3.00
Better Career Opportunities in Other Professions 498 4.01 4.00
Child Care Not Seen as Professional Career 497 4.05 4.00
Low Salaries 503 4.70 5.00
Inadequate Benefits 504 4.50 5.00
Openings Not Advertised 493 2.97 3.00
Child care is not respected as profession 495 3.99 4.00
Other 42 3.90 4.00

Commenting on the qualifications of applicants, respondents wrote the following:

Generally, finding qualified staff can be difficult primarily because of low salaries. If centers could afford to pay higher average salaries and competitive benefits (particularly in urban demographic areas), they could hire more qualified workers, reduce turnover, and perception of the profession would not be a consideration - as is alluded by previous questions. The change in the economic environment has definitely helped in finding more qualified applicants.

Our difficulty is finding qualified people who are only looking for part-time work, most people who have a bachelors degree or teacher certification are choosing full time or public school.

It is a constant struggle to find qualified staff who are willing to work at the wages we can afford to pay and lack of benefits. Our wages paid are based off of trying to keep tuition affordable for parents, a major factor in keeping enrollment up. It is a vicious circle!!

Center Turnover

By accessing the INCCRRA provider database downloaded at two points in time we are able to measure turnover among the different types of child care providers. To do so we compared the number of providers actively providing care on June 30, 2007 to a download of the same database on June 30, 2009. As Table 20a shows, the net result of losing providers, gaining providers, and providers changing type of care provided was a slight increase in the number of center providers for the two-year period.

Table 20a. Provider Turnover 2007-2009: Child Care Centers 

Active 2007 Still Active 2009 Percent Change New Providers 2009 Percent Change Active 2009 Percent
Change
Number of Active Providers 3,124 2,856 -8.6% 294 9.4% 3,187 2.0%
Total Licensed Capacity 223,159 212,505 -4.8% 14,600 6.5% 231,211 3.6%

Staff Demographics

To obtain information on individual child care staff-rather than for the child care center as a whole-directors were asked to complete a worksheet for all full-time and part-time employees in their programs in this survey. While we recognize the importance of understanding characteristics of employees in the entire child care sector (food service staff, building service staff, bus drivers), in order to accurately assess the economic impact of the child care industry as a whole on local economies, we limited this worksheet to classroom staff and administrative staff only.

Out of the 602 surveys (paper-and-pencil and online) filled out, worksheets were completed for 448 centers reporting on 3,191 staff in those centers. It is important to note that not all respondents who returned a survey answered every (or any) question on the staff worksheet, so there is some variation in the number of responses reported for each question. The notation n indicates the number of responses to a particular question.

On the staff worksheet, directors reported the following breakdown (Table 21) of employees by position -using only DCFS-defined staff categories.

Table 21. Number of Employees by Position

Position Number of
Employees
Weighted
Percentages
Administrative Director 235 7.4%
Director/Teacher 345 10.8%
Early Childhood Teacher 1599 50.1%
Early Childhood Assistant 871 27.3%
School-Age Worker 110 3.4%
School-Age Assistant 31 1.0%
Total 3191 100.0%

These numbers are slightly different when compared to Table 5 for two reasons. Table 5 includes total full- and part-time staff (excluding temporary, seasonal, and substitute employees) while Table 21 was based on the survey worksheet insert, which not all directors completed. This worksheet requested information only for full- and part-time employees in DCFS-defined staff categories in their programs.

Using the Department of Labor's definition of full-time employment being 37.5 hours or more per week, staff were divided into two categories - full-time and part-time employees. Of the staff members represented, 63% were identified as full-time and 37% part-time. Table 22 presents the breakdown of (part-time vs. full-time) work status by position.

Table 22. Number of Employees by Position and Hours Worked

Position Full-Time Part-Time N
Administrative Director 83.0% 17.0% 235
Director/Teacher 73.8% 26.2% 343
Early Childhood Teacher 67.7% 32.3% 1,592
Early Childhood Assistant 49.1% 50.9% 864
School-Age Worker 38.0% 62.0% 108
School-Age Assistant 25.8% 74.2% 31

Education and Credentials

For each employee listed on the worksheet, directors were asked to report the highest education level completed and any credentials earned. Illinois licensing standards require center directors to have a minimum of 60 college semester hours, with 18 of those hours in early childhood education (ECE) or child development (CD); child care teachers to have a minimum of 60 semester hours, with a minimum of 6 semester hours in ECE/CD; and child care assistant teachers are required to have a minimum of a high school diploma.

As Table 23 reveals, over 90% of early childhood teachers had some form of college education.

Over 67% of teachers exceeded the DCFS licensing standards (see Appendix C) in as much as they had completed an Associates, Bachelors, or Masters degree. Furthermore 40.4% of teachers had earned their Associates, Bachelors, or Masters degree(s) in early childhood or child development.

Of those with Bachelor's degrees or higher, 11.1% of administrative directors, 15.4% of director/teachers, and 11.1% of teachers, were reported to be 04/02 certified.

Table 23. Center Staff Educational Attainment by Position (column percentages)

Education Category Admin. Director Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant
Teacher
S/A Worker Assist. S/A Worker All Staff Positions
High School Diploma/GED 3.0 0.6 0.5 45.0 11.8 58.1 13.8
Child Development Associate, Child Care Professional or Montessori (American Montessori Society or Association Montessori International) credential 2.6 8.4 8.9 3.9 6.4 0.0 6.9
Some College in Early Childhood (ECE) or Child Development (CD), no degree 7.2 11.6 18.4 24.3 28.2 16.1 18.8
Approved Community College Early Childhood Certificate 0.4 2.6 2.2 .9 1.8 0.0 1.7
Associates Degree with ECE/CD major 21.7 21.7 22.9 5.2 6.4 6.5 17.1
Associates Degree with non ECE/CD major 6.0 5.8 6.7 3.8 9.1 3.2 5.8
Bachelors Degree in ECE/CD 14.5 16.2 14.4 1.6 1.8 3.2 10.6
Bachelors Degree in Other Field 24.7 19.1 17.7 9.6 20.0 0.0 16.1
Masters Degree in ECE/CD 10.2 7.5 3.1 0.1 0.9 0.0 3.2
Masters Degree in Other Field 5.5 2.6 2.2 1.1 0.9 0.0 2.1
Not Specified 4.2 3.9 3.0 4.5 12.7 12.9 3.9
N 235 345 1599 871 110 31

Note. Percentages are column percentages. Therefore, this table should be read, for example, Out of 235 Administrative Directors for whom education and credential information was provided, 5.5% had a Masters degree in a field other than early childhood education or child development.

Years of Experience

Directors were asked to report how many years total experience each employee had as a paid child care practitioner - either in a child care center or as a family child care home provider. Table 24 presents these results. The average child care provider had 9.4 years (median 7.0 years) of experience as a child care practitioner.

Table 24. Years of Experience

Position Years of Experience in Child Care Field
Mean (n) Median n Range
Administrative Director 16.62 15.00 228 1-41 years
Director/Teacher 13.54 12.00 341 1-41 years
Early Childhood Teacher 9.46 8.00 1572 1-40 years
Early Childhood Assistant 6.08 4.00 837 1-48 years
School-Age Worker 7.42 5.00 100 1-45 years
School-Age Assistant 3.86 2.00 29 1-21 years

Salaries and Wages

Hourly wages were provided for 3,125 center staff. For all staff, the mean (average) hourly wage as reported by directors was $12.06 (median = $10.05; mode = $7.75). Table 25 displays salaries broken down by position.

Table 25. Hourly Wage by Position

Position Average Hourly Wage Median Hourly Wage N
Administrative Director $18.48 $17.00 227
Director/Teacher $13.89 $12.50 331
Teacher $12.29 $11.00 1580
Assistant Teacher $9.49 $8.70 854
School-Age Worker $10.71 $9.71 102
Assistant School-Age Worker $9.05 $8.25 31

Full- versus Part-time Status. Across all categories of child care staff, hourly wages were significantly different for those employed part-time versus those who worked full-time, (f=.056; p < .005). Full-time workers were paid on average $12.24 per hour whereas part-time staff received $11.71 per hour. However, when we examine each staff category individually, it appears that the effect was accounted for by school-age workers and assistant school age workers; the wages of administrative directors, director/teachers and teachers and assistant teachers did not differ significantly across full- versus part-time status. Table 26 displays hourly wages by position by employment status.

Table 26. Hourly Wages by Position by Full- vs. Part-Time Status

Position Employment Status
Full-Time Part-Time
Mean N Median Mean N Median
Administrative Director $18.21 188 17.00 $19.78 39 17.00
Director/Teacher $13.70 245 12.25 $14.46 86 13.57
Teacher $11.92 1067 11.00 $12.96 509 12.00
Assistant Teacher $9.56 413 8.75 $9.39 437 8.63
School-Age Worker $11.78 40 11.10 $10.02 62 9.00
Assistant School-Age Worker $10.15 8 9.23 $8.66 23 7.75

FIGURE 1 - Comparison of hourly wages for FY97, FY07, and FY09 (adjusted for inflation; 1997 dollars).

Position FY97 FY07 FY09
Director/Teacher 9.40 7.40 5.90
Teacher 9.87 9.53 7.15
Assistant Teacher 10.39 9.19 7.10

In Figure 1, hourly wages (adjusted for inflation) are compared over time. There have been general and modest increases from FY97 through FY07 in all three staffing categories. That pattern held for Director/Teachers from FY07 to FY09. However, when we compare FY09 salaries to FY07 salaries, there was salary stagnation for Assistant Teachers and salary losses for Teachers, likely an impact of the recent economic downturn.

In an attempt to corroborate the director-reported wage data from this survey, we compared our data with the most recent Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Survey Data on the child care workforce as compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Employment Statistics Data for second quarter of 2007 for Illinois, http://www.bls.gov/oes/2008/may/oes299011.htm#st.

The BLS uses three categories that encompass center-based child care staff. Education Administrators, Preschool and Child Care Center/Program (Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Code 11-9031) are defined as those who "Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic and nonacademic activities of preschool or child care centers or programs." Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education (SOC Code 25-2011) "Instruct children (normally up to 5 years of age) in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility." Child Care Workers (SOC code 39-9011) "Attend to children in schools, businesses, private households, and child care institutions. Perform a variety of tasks such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play."

While we recognize the Salary and Staffing Survey data may not be strictly comparable to the OES Survey Data, the comparison may be useful. The OES Survey revealed the following for the three categories of Illinois child care staff:

  • The median hourly wage for Education Administrators, Preschool and Child Care Center /Program was $19.99, with a mean entry-level wage of $12.50 and a mean experienced wage of $31.35;
  • The median hourly wage for Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education was $13.40, with a mean entry-level wage of $9.32 and a mean experienced wage of $14.03 ; and
  • The median hourly wage for Child Care Workers was $9.65, with a mean entry-level wage of $7.96 and a mean experienced wage of $13.36.

Staff Experience and Education

Staff experience and education were significantly associated with total years of experience in the child care field (r = 50, p<.0001) and this effect held for each category of child care staff. In general, staff who had more years of experience in their current position earned a higher hourly wage. Table 27 displays the hourly wage for all positions by years of experience in current child care position.

Table 27: Hourly Wages by Years of Experience by Position

Years of Experience Director Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant Teacher School-Age Worker Assistant School-Age Worker
1-2 years Mean $15.10 10.70 11.00 8.70 10.00 8.60
Median $14.00 10.20 10.00 8.00 8.80 7.80
n n=6 28 270 312 30 15
3-5 years Mean $16.70 12.50 11.20 9.30 10.00 8.90
Median $15.10 11.00 10.00 8.60 9.00 8.30
n n=20 38 361 212 24 8
6-9 Mean $16.60 13.50 12.10 10.00 11.10 10.20
Median $15.00 12.30 11.00 9.40 10.30 9.00
n n=28 49 288 116 20 5
10-15 Mean $15.90 13.60 12.70 10.30 10.70 -
Median $15.70 12.00 11.70 9.90 10.70
n n=58 95 352 122 15
16-20 Mean $17.80 14.40 13.90 11.00 11.70 -
Median $16.20 14.90 12.80 9.00 11.60
n n=44 53 151 28 5
20 + Mean $22.40 16.30 15.40 12.50 15.10 -
Median $21.00 15.20 13.50 11.40 14.10
n n=65 66 138 36 6

Note: Statistics for which there were fewer than 3 observations were deleted.

Tables 27 and 28 demonstrate a logical pattern within hourly wages. In general, the more experience and education an employee has attained, the higher their hourly wage will be. It is important to note that when comparing all those positions who have Associates degrees, Bachelor's degrees and Master's degrees within the area of Early Childhood Education or Child Development make significantly more than those who hold the same degrees in other, non-ECE/CD fields (p<.001).

Table 28: Hourly Wages by Education by Position

Level of Education Director Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant Teacher School-Age Worker Asst. School Age Worker
High School/ GED Mean $17.90 - $9.40 $8.70 - $8.80
Median $14.60 - $8.80 $8.00 - $7.80
n 7 - 8 387 - 18
Child Development Associate Mean $20.40 $12.80 $10.90 $10.60 $9.70 $11.40
Median $16.60 $11.60 $10.30 $10.80 $9.30 -
n 6 28 142 34 7 -
Some College in ECE or CD, no degree Mean $16.20 $12.10 $10.50 $9.20 $9.70 $10.30
Median $14.60 $12.00 $9.50 $8.70 $9.00 $8.50
n 17 39 291 207 30 5
Approved Community College Early Childhood Certificate Mean - $12.40 $10.10 $10.40 - $10.50
Median - $11.20 $10.00 $10.40 - -
n - 8 34 8 - -
AA Degree with ECE/CD Major Mean $15.70 $12.60 $11.30 $10.60 $11.50 -
Median $15.00 $11.30 $10.50 $10.10 $10.10 -
n 51 73 363 45 7 -
AA Degree with non ECE/CD Major Mean $17.10 $12.00 $10.50 $10.60 $10.50 -
Median $17.00 $11.40 $10.00 $9.00 $10.20 -
n 12 19 106 33 10 -
BA with ECE/CD Major Mean $19.20 $15.60 $15.40 $13.20 - -
Median $17.80 $14.00 $14.80 $12.50 - -
n 34 53 229 14 - -
BA with non ECE/CD Major Mean $18.70 $18.20 $12.90 $11.40 $12.60 $13.50
Median $18.50 $13.10 $12.20 $10.30 $13.00 -
n 55 62 281 79 21 -
MA in ECE/CD Major Mean $23.60 $14.30 $19.60 - - $10.10
Median $22.70 $19.10 $19.20 - - -
n 23 26 49 - - -
MA in non ECE/CD program Mean $23.00 $13.80 $15.10 $12.30 - $15.90
Median $22.00 $12.50 $14.00 $10.40 - -
n 11 9 35 10 - -

Note: Statistics for which there were fewer than 3 observations were deleted.

Center Characteristics

We examined hourly wages in relation to several program characteristics, including program duration (part-year versus full-year programs), accreditation status, profit versus non-profit status, center size, and the percentage of children enrolled who receive child care subsidies.

Across all categories of child care staff, wages were significantly higher in part- versus full year programs (f=176.112, p<.0001). On average, staff in part-year programs earn $14.48 (median=$13.00) per hour as compared to $11.35 (median=$10.00) for full-year staff. This effect holds up for all but the school-age positions. Table 29 displays hourly wages by position by program duration.

Table 29. Hourly Wages by Position and Program Duration

Position Program Duration
  Full-Year Part-Year
Mean Median N Mean Median N
Administrative Director $17.23 $16.00 177 $22.88 $21.21 33
Director/Teacher $13.02 $12.00 245 $16.65 $16.00 54
Teacher $11.41 $10.25 1219 $15.43 $14.00 238
Assistant Teacher $9.08 $8.25 613 $10.87 $10.00 158
School-Age Worker $10.35 $9.57 84 $8.83 $8.25 6
Assistant School-Age Worker $9.03 $8.00 25 $9.66 $7.75 3

As indicated in Table 30, there exists a significant difference in the wages paid by accredited versus non-accredited centers. Across all positions with available data accredited centers paid significantly more (mean=$14.30; median=$13.00) than non-accredited centers for (mean=$11.49; median=$10.00), (f=166.58, p<.0000).

Table 30. Hourly Wages by Position by Accreditation Status

Position Accreditation Status
Not Accredited Accredited
Mean Median N Mean Median N
Administrative Director $17.25 $16.00 184 $24.73 $23.00 37
Director/Teacher $13.54 $12.00 285 $17.23 $16.34 42
Teacher $11.65 $10.40 1195 $14.19 $13.00 378
Assistant Teacher $9.17 $8.50 717 $11.33 $10.62 132
School-Age Worker $10.02 $9.12 70 $12.23 $12.22 32
Assistant School-Age Worker $9.09 $8.31 30 - - -

Overall, without regard to position, there was a significant difference in the wages paid by for-profit versus not-for-profit centers. Non-profit centers paid staff significantly more (mean=$12.66; median=$11.25) than for-profit centers (mean=$10.85; median=$9.73), (f=102.46, p<.0001). Again, this effect held for all but the position of school-age worker. Table 31 displays the hourly wages by position for for-profit and not-for-profit centers.

Table 31. Hourly Wages by Position by Center Profit Status

Position Profit Status
For Profit Not For Profit
Mean Median N Mean Median N
Administrative Director 15.58 15.00 95 20.36 18.92 120
Director/Teacher 10.85 9.73 1236 12.67 11.25 1735
Teacher 10.75 10.00 585 13.00 12.02 908
Assistant Teacher 9.04 8.02 375 9.82 9.00 448
School-Age Worker 10.63 9.25 41 10.46 10.00 56
Assistant School-Age Worker 8.82 7.72 8 9.07 8.23 30

Center size was not related to hourly wage.

Overall, there was not a significant correlation between the percentage of Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP; subsidy) children enrolled and wages.

Regional Differences in Wages. Next, we calculated hourly wages by CCR&R Service Delivery Areas (SDAs) (see Appendix B). Table 32 presents the hourly wages reported by SDA for each position except the two school-age positions.

Table 32. Child Care Wages by Service Delivery Area (SDA) by Position

CCR&R Office Location Position
Admin. Director Director/ Teacher Teacher Assistant Teacher
Mean Median N Mean Median N Mean Median N Mean Median N
Rockford 18.69 16.00 13 12.88 11.00 15 11.71 10.56 95 8.53 8.10 45
DeKalb 19.50 18.88 10 13.20 12.70 21 11.48 11.00 112 9.21 8.50 70
Waukegan 20.97 19.00 14 18.54 17.50 14 13.40 12.95 62 9.80 9.00 22
Glen Ellyn 19.49 19.50 27 15.21 15.00 37 13.43 12.50 163 10.32 10.00 94
Joliet 24.42 22.35 12 13.35 12.49 20 12.99 12.00 66 9.66 9.18 41
Chicago 21.10 21.40 56 16.86 15.00 71 14.31 13.40 403 11.31 10.48 185
Davenport 19.79 13.88 6 12.53 11.50 14 11.26 9.64 87 8.03 7.75 32
Peoria 15.94 16.00 13 11.48 10.35 43 9.52 9.00 65 8.43 8.00 35
Bloomington 21.38 20.00 9 16.57 18.00 7 13.26 13.00 37 8.84 8.02 33
Urbana 16.39 15.00 13 14.18 11.72 14 11.96 10.57 105 9.14 8.76 55
Charleston 14.68 14.86 4 9.03 7.75 5
Quincy 15.32 13.71 8 9.61 10.37 9
Springfield 14.60 16.00 9 12.50 11.28 11 10.48 9.34 54 8.88 8.25 31
Granite City 13.86 12.55 15 11.23 10.13 28 10.40 9.48 116 8.39 8.00 82
Mt Vernon 12.02 11.30 9 9.48 9.37 14 8.56 8.29 53 8.02 7.75 41
Carterville 11.44 10.12 10 12.66 10.13 10 8.69 8.66 48 7.86 7.75 32

Note: Statistics for which there were fewer than 3 observations were deleted.

Of the low salaries in the field, several directors acknowledged the problem:

Unless there is a better way of increasing revenue than by increasing parent fees, there will not be equitable wages paid to early childhood teachers. Mandating increased levels of education without funding salaries will simply lead to more people leaving the field and finding jobs elsewhere. Currently, I have three of my staff taking classes in other fields. When their studies are completed, they will leave. If this field is to become more than a springboard to other professions, it needs to become a destination and not just a stopping point on the way to something else.

Compensation in the child care field is extremely poor. Many staff members have other jobs outside of the field just to make ends meet. Many of the staff in the past have left to work in the public schools so that they can get paid better and have scheduled breaks (summer, spring and Christmas). In the child care field it is difficult to find qualified staff that are willing to work year round.

Child care salaries are too low. We need to invest in those who work with our children more hours during the day. I hear quite often the staff here really enjoy their jobs, but it is really hard for them to survive on the pay rate.

Benefits

Directors were asked to report on a variety of benefits. For each benefit, the director could indicate whether 1) it was paid in full or partially by the child care center, 2) if employees received the benefit through the center but paid for the benefit themselves, or 3) if the benefit was not available to the employee. As presented in Table 33, the majority of employees did not receive health insurance, dental insurance, life insurance, or pension/retirement benefits, reduced child care or educational stipends. Conversely, the majority of staff did receive paid sick leave, vacation leave, and paid holidays.

Table 33. Benefits by Availability and Funding Source

Benefit Paid by Center
(Full or Partial)
% Employees
Paying Benefit
Benefit Not
Provided
N
Health Insurance 34.6 6.7 58.7 3053
Dental Insurance 22.0 12.8 65.1 3012
Life Insurance 35.2 2.7 62.1 2968
Pension 32.1 7.4 60.5 2950
Sick Leave 73.8 2.7 23.5 3050
Vacation 76.5 1.6 21.9 3105
Holidays 79.5 2.5 18.0 3115
Reduced/Free Child Care 39.2 2.8 58.0 2831
Educational Stipends 41.2 4.3 54.5 3191

This table should be read, Out of the 3053 employees for whom directors provided benefits information, 34.6% receive paid health insurance from their center.

Examining the provision of benefits by position, we calculated the percentage of administrative directors, teachers, and assistant teachers who received paid benefits (that is, paid by the center) by full-time versus part-time status. As Table 34 reveals, a large majority of full-time administrative directors, teachers, and assistant teachers received paid sick leave, vacation time, and holidays. Most directors, teachers, and assistant teachers did not receive dental or life insurance or pensions.

Table 34. Percent of Full-Time Staff Who Receive (Full or Partial) Benefits Paid by the Center by Position

Benefit Admin.
Director
Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant
Teacher
Health Insurance 41.8 39.6 51.8 40.5
Dental Insurance 29.4 35.5 31.0 24.9
Life Insurance 44.1 40.3 51.5 41.5
Pension 39.3 41.4 43.3 32.6
Sick Leave 80.9 80.8 87.1 79.1
Vacation 89.5 90.8 92.8 90.7
Holidays 91.2 90.6 94.3 91.5
Reduced/Free Child Care 54.9 53.8 40.0 40.5
Educational Stipends 50.3 43.9 43.9 41.3

This table should be read, Out of all Full-Time Administrative Directors for whom health insurance information was provided, 41.8% received health insurance paid by their child care center.

For part-time staff, the percentages receiving any benefit were, in general, much less than for full-time staff. Chi-square analyses conducted for each benefit indicated that part-time staff as a whole were significantly ( p < .0001) less likely to receive all benefits with the exception of reduced/free child care and educational stipends, for which there was no statistically significant difference by work status. Table 35 illustrates the relatively lower rate of benefits for part-time staff.

Table 35. Percent of Part-Time Staff Who Receive (Full or Partial) Benefits Paid by the Center by Position

Benefit Admin.
Director
Director/
Teacher
Teacher Assistant
Teacher
Health Insurance 27.5 16.3 17.2 8.8
Dental Insurance 15.4 8.1 12.1 4.9
Life Insurance 25.0 18.1 19.5 9.3
Pension 17.5 25.3 20.6 15.1
Sick Leave 76.9 53.7 61.6 50.9
Vacation 66.7 52.4 52.8 44.8
Holidays 67.5 60.5 58.5 51.3
Reduced/Free Child Care 42.1 37.9 38.0 27.6
Educational Stipends 26.3 40.7 43.1 32.9

This table should be read, Out of all Part-Time Administrative Directors for whom health insurance information was provided, 27.5% received health insurance paid by their child care center.

A majority of part-time assistant teachers received none of the benefits listed, save sick leave and holidays. Part-time administrative directors tended to receive slightly higher levels of benefits than other staff. The majority received paid sick leave, vacations, and holidays. (Generalizations from these percentages to the population must be made with some caution as the numbers of individuals representing part-time staff may be rather small).

Comments about insurance coverage were common among our respondents. The following are typical:

Wish we were in a position to offer benefits such as paid health insurance, dental and retirement. These benefits would make work in this field more appealing for people interested in a career.

If the subsidy was increased the center could provide health and dental insurance.

I would really like to provide benefits such as health insurance for my employees, but just can't make it. I purchased the daycare from the church in 2000 and that is the main reason they sold it was because of having to provide health insurance. I am sure that I could get longer term employees if it was provided at a reasonable cost to everyone.

Profile of Family Child Care Home Providers: Key Findings

From the 10,757 invitations sent to IDCFS licensed family child care home providers, 1,093 completed online surveys were submitted. Of 241 paper-and-pencil surveys sent to family child care home providers, 158 surveys were returned completed. In total, 1,251 licensed family child care home provider surveys were completed, for a response rate of 11.6%. Table 36 presents the response rates by CCR&R service delivery area (SDA) (see Appendix B).

Not all respondents returning a survey answered every question, so there is some variation in the number of responses reported for each question. The notation ('n or n=) indicates the number of responses to a particular survey item.

However, note that all statistics (mean, median, etc.) and percentages reported were calculated with weighted samples.

As was the case with the responses of child care centers, responses of family child care home providers were weighted relative to their representation in each county. All statistical tests were conducted and results reported with weighted samples.

Completed Surveys

Table 36. Survey Return Rates by Service Delivery Area: Family Child Care Home Providers

Service Delivery Area CCR&R Main
Office Location
Number of Providers Number of
Surveys Completed
Percentage of
Surveys Completed
SDA 1 Rockford 715 87 12.17%
SDA 2 DeKalb 500 85 17.00%
SDA 3 Waukegan 580 43 7.41%
SDA 4 Glen Ellyn 508 69 13.58%
SDA 5 Joliet 664 79 11.90%
SDA 6 Chicago 3,936 350 8.89%
SDA 7 Davenport 415 60 14.46%
SDA 8 Peoria 360 51 14.17%
SDA 9 Bloomington 269 47 17.47%
SDA 10 Urbana 665 95 14.29%
SDA 11 Charleston 164 35 21.34%
SDA 12 Quincy 387 45 11.63%
SDA 13 Springfield 468 63 13.46%
SDA 14 Granite City 611 58 9.49%
SDA 15 Mt. Vernon 302 50 16.56%
SDA 16 Carterville 213 34 15.96%
Totals 10,757 1251 11.63%

Demographics

Gender

Almost all (99.3%; n=1069 of the 1076 who reported their gender) family child care practitioners responding to the survey were female.

Ethnicity

As Table 37 shows, a little over 60 percent of respondents identified themselves on the survey as White and 28 percent identified themselves as African-American. Relative to population counts of Illinois, African-Americans are over-represented among licensed family child care home practitioners and Latino-Hispanic providers are under-represented.

Table 37. Respondents' Race/Ethnicity (N = 1084)

Race/Ethnicity n Percentage
White/Caucasian 680 62.7
African-American 302 27.9
Hispanic 68 6.3
Native American 5 0.5
Asian 4 0.4
Other 18 1.7
Multi-racial 7 0.6

Age

Table 38 shows that the majority (84%) were 30 to 59 years of age, most (59%) of survey respondents were 40 years of age or older, and that less than one-fifth were under 30 or over 59 years of age.

Table 38. Respondents' Age (N = 1091)

Age Range n Percentage
Under 20 years 0 0
20-29 Years 64 5.9
30-39 Years 277 25.4
40-49 Years 342 31.3
50-59 Years 305 28.0
60 Years or over 103 9.4

Experience

As a way of capturing longevity in family child care, practitioners were asked to report how long they had been taking care of children in their home for pay. Providers who answered the survey item reported that they had been caring for children for an average of 18.9 years (n=1,079; median=10.0 years; range= 0 to 60 years). Almost half reported that they had cared for children in their homes for 9 or more years.

Because there is often movement within the field of child care, practitioners also were asked if they had ever been employed in a child care center or public school and if so, for how many years. Of 1,086 practitioners responding to the question, almost thirty percent (29.4%; n=319) reported that they had worked at a center or public school, for an average of 5.91 years (median = 4.00 years; range = 0 to 30 years).

Education

Practitioners were asked to indicate the highest educational level they had completed. Results are shown in Table 39. If they had completed post-high school education, they were asked whether their course work was in early childhood education or child development. 18.3 percent of practitioners had earned a certificate, or degree in ECE/CD and another 26.1% had completed at least some college coursework in early childhood education or child development. Just over 20% of practitioners had a degree in a field other than ECE/CD. Almost 4% (46 survey respondents) indicated that they had Some High School.

Table 39. Respondents' Education Level (N = 1154)

Education Level n Percentage
Some High School 46 4.0
High School Diploma/GED 319 27.6
Some College-ECE/CD 318 27.6
Approved Community College ECE Certificate 45 3.9
Associate's Degree - ECE/CD 139 12.0
Associate's Degree - Other 103 8.9
Bachelor's Degree - ECE/CD 31 2.7
Bachelor's Degree - Other 124 10.7
Master's Degree or higher - ECE/CD 8 0.7
Master's Degree or higher - Other 21 1.8

Sixteen practitioners out of the 1,220 (1.3%) who responded to the question indicated that they had an 04/02 (early childhood) teaching certificate.

Accreditation

In this administration of the Salary and Staffing Survey, we relied on data reported by the accrediting bodies themselves. According to its website, as of February 10, 2010, of the 1251 family child care providers in the sample 43 or 3.4% had National Association of Family Child Care (NAFCC) accreditation. Of the total 10,764 family child care providers on the INCCRRA database, 134 or 1.2%% were NAFCC accredited as of 12/31/08.

Professional Development

Awareness of and Participation in Professional Development

Providers were asked about their awareness of and participation in professional development opportunities and programs available in Illinois.

  • More than 80 percent of respondents (83.4%; n=913 of 1095) had heard of the Great START program
  • Just over 75 percent of respondents (75.1%; n=815 of 1085) had heard of the Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship (formerly T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood ® Program) program.
  • More than 60% of respondents (61.2%; n=654 of 1068) had heard of the Gateways to Opportunity Credentials program.
  • Nearly half of all respondents (48.7%; n=515 of 1058) had heard of the Professional Development Advisor Program.
  • More than 80 percent of all respondents (84.4%; n=914 of 1083) had heard of the Quality Rating System.
  • Just over 20% of providers (n=254 of 1251) have had at least one Great START recipient in the past two years. Those 254 programs have had a total of 258 Great START recipients.
  • 3.8% (n=48 of 1251) of family child care programs had at least one Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship (formerly T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood ® Program) recipient for a total of 51 recipients.

Training and Training Opportunities

The content of training can vary in its relevance to early childhood education (ECE). We asked family child care home practitioners to report if they had received training in ECE or child development (CD) in the last year. Table 40 displays where family child care providers reported attending training.

Table 40. Sources of Training (N=1251)

Training Sources n Percentage
Child Care Resource and Referral Workshops 984 78.7
Local Community Workshops 486 38.8
Professional Meeting or Conference Workshops 454 36.3

Note: Multiple responses were possible

Licensing standards require a minimum of fifteen training hours per year. On average, family child care home practitioners reported exceeding this minimum, spending 20.9 hours in workshops or conference training (N=1092; median=16.0 hours).

We also asked practitioners if they had completed any college coursework in ECE or CD in the last year. Of the 1,214 practitioners who responded to the survey question, 256 (21.1%) reported they had done so.

Overall, the majority of providers (85.1%) responded yes when asked if they felt that they had adequate training opportunities. Providers were asked about difficulties they may have experienced in trying to find appropriate training or educational opportunities.

  • 35.1% agreed that most opportunities are during the day or work week when it is difficult to attend;
  • 32.9% indicated that they were unable to miss work to attend training;
  • 22.0% endorsed that they were unable to leave the house or family to attend training;
  • 19.9% agreed that the cost of training is too high;
  • 18.5% endorsed that their community does not have enough courses or workshops or enough variety;
  • 6.8% agreed that there was no reason to pursue more training; and
  • 3.8% checked that the quality of training is not good.

Capacity and Enrollment

One aim of the Salary and Staffing Survey is to characterize the care environment of family home child care providers. According to the INCCRRA provider database, the average total license capacity of the sample was approximately 9 children. The average licensed capacity of all family child care providers on the database (10,764) was also approximately 9 children. During a typical week, the largest number of children providers reported caring for, excluding their own children, was, on average, 7.4 (n=1234; median=7). During a typical week, providers cared for, on average, 3.9 children (n=1050; median=2.00) whose families received IDHS and/or IDCFS child care financial assistance. Similarly, providers reported that, on average, 2.9 of their client families (n=1,013; median=2.00) received some form of assistance paying for child care.

Family child care providers were to rate the vacancies in their program on a scale from 1= There are always vacancies to 5 = There are never vacancies. 40.5% of family child care providers felt that there were rarely or never vacancies in their homes (n=497), 31.5% felt that there were sometimes vacancies, and only 28.0% felt that there were always or often vacancies in their programs. Vacancies are not common for these family child care home providers.

Assistants

While family home providers may be typically thought of as independent, lone practitioners, 30.0% (n=366 of 1,222 respondents) reported having paid assistants and 29.6% (n=338 of 1,142) reported having unpaid assistants.

Paid assistants were paid an average of $6.89 per hour (n=418; median=$7.75) and worked an average of 22.0 hours in an average week (n=408; median=20.0).

Business Characteristics

Hours

Responding providers (n=1,066) reported working an average of 53.7 hours per week (median=52.9 hours) and reported operating an average of 49.9 weeks per year (n=1,081; median=50.00 weeks).

In addition, providers reported spending an average of 16.52 hours per week on various child care-related activities outside of caring for the children, such as preparing food, shopping, cleaning, record keeping, and activity planning for the children (N=1074; median=12.0 hours).

Earnings and Operating Expenses

Providers were asked to report their annual expenses (food, utilities, insurance, and materials), not including wages. Responding providers (n=891) reported average annual expenses of $14,974 with a median of $12,000.

Licensed family home providers reported average gross annual earnings of $28,621 (n=987; median= $25,000). Reported earnings were close or identical to FY07, with reported average gross annual earnings of $28,165, and a median of $25,000. Average net earnings were reported (n= 905) to be $11,257, with a median net income of $10,000. In FY07, respondents reported average net earnings of $14,503, with a median of $12,000. In FY09:

  • 25% of family child care providers net less than $3,000.
  • 50% of family child care providers net less than $10,000.
  • 75% of family child care providers net less than $17,400.

With the average provider working approximately 49 weeks per year and over 53 hours per week, an average annual net income of $11,257 works out to around $4.23 per hour, compared to minimum wage of $7.50.

Other Income Sources

More than one out of 10 providers (10.4%) reported having a paid job in addition to providing child care. More than two-thirds of providers (68.9%) reported having at least one other adult in the household contributing to household income. The majority of providers (87.7%) participate in the Child and Adult Food Care Program, a reimbursement program administered by the Illinois State Board of Education.

Fee Policies

The survey also explored the fee policies of family home child care providers. As Table 41 shows, while the majority of family child care providers are paid when children are absent due to sickness and slightly more than half are paid when the provider is closed for holidays, most are not paid when client children are on vacation nor when the provider closes for vacation, sickness, or to attend training. Less than 10% of family child care providers indicate that they are paid when they are forced to take time off for such reasons as funerals or other family emergencies, jury duty, and weather-related absences.

Table 41. Fee Policies

Provider is Paid When… n Percentage
Children are absent because they are sick 771 70.5%
Children are on vacation 531 48.8%
You are closed for holidays 577 52.9%
You are closed for vacation days 212 19.5%
You are closed for sick days 181 16.9%
You are closed for training days 150 13.9%
Other reasons 96 8.9%

Note: Multiple responses possible.

Over half (52.3%) of the providers charge extra when children are picked up late or when children are dropped off early, with a wide range of fees charged.

Financial Assistance

When respondents were asked if, in the past two years, they had received any of the following types of financial assistance,

  • 0.6% report having received TANF/AFDC;
  • 7.2% report having received Medicaid for themselves;
  • 7.8% report having received Medicaid for their children;
  • 1.4% report having received subsidized housing/Section 8 funds;
  • 5.0% report having received food stamps/LINK;
  • 3.0% report having received FamilyCare for themselves;
  • 8.9% report having received KidCare for their children; and
  • 1.3% reported receiving another form of financial assistance.

One third of (33.9%) family child care providers had received some form of public assistance in the two years prior to completing the survey.

Benefits

Of providers who responded to the survey item (n=1,085), 84.4% were covered by some kind of health insurance. Of these providers, 17.9.3% were covered in full and 38.4% partially, by their spouse's employer. 17.8% purchased their own health insurance. 13.5% were Medicaid/Medicare eligible. An additional 12.4% of providers reported Other parties paying for their health insurance, including retirement benefits.

Over half (58.4%) of providers reported contributing to Social Security and Medicare.

Only about one in four (25.7%) reported setting aside money for retirement in the previous year.

Professional Support

Past research has reported that family child care practitioners often feel isolated since they provide care in their own home and seldom interact with other providers, which can lead to burnout and turnover. However, the majority of the home-based practitioners (85.3%) responding to the survey indicated that they did have at least one other provider to talk to if they had a problem in their program. Practitioners also report using Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR&R) services. Almost three quarters (69.0%) reported that in the past two years they had contacted their local CCR&R agency for help or information with a question or problem. Finally, 46.0% of responding family child care practitioners belonged to a professional child care organization.

Turnover

Among our respondents, nearly forty percent (38.5%) indicated that they had, at some time in the past year, considered no longer providing care. The following reasons were given for why they considered quitting. (Note that more than one response could be chosen).

  • Dissatisfied with benefits (68.2%)
  • Too little respect for what child care providers do (62.9%)
  • Dissatisfied with salary (62.3%)
  • Too little time off (60.8%)
  • Too much stress (50.9%)
  • Frustration with parents (44.9%)
  • Retirement (44.5%)
  • Other (39.9%)
  • Enrollment too low (37.2%)
  • Isolation (36.5%)
  • External/Personal factors (33.0%)
  • Want to go back to school (21.7%)
  • Health problems (13.4%)
  • Moving/relocating (7.2%)
  • Not enough working hours (4.6%)
  • Enrollment too high (3.8%)

When asked how much longer they thought that they would continue to offer care in their homes, half (54.0%; n=675) of providers reported I don't know. Of the 576 who reported how much longer they expected to continue to offer care, the average number of years was a little over 10 years (median = 10.00).

The responses in Table 42 indicate that when asked what, if anything, would make them want to continue to provide care for a longer time, the majority of providers most frequently endorsed higher income, better benefits, time off, and respite care (substitute teacher). No other reason offered resulted in a majority of positive responses, although the only categories accounting for less than one-quarter of respondents were fewer children enrolled and more working hours.

Table 42. Reasons to Offer Care for a Longer Time

Reasons Presented Percentage n
Higher Income 85.5 408
Better Benefits 77.8 410
Time Off 72.7 407
Respite Care 51.1 407
Higher Enrollment 36.3 402
More Contact with Other Providers 33.1 408
Help with Solving Problems 32.9 407
Access to Family Child Care Training 29.6 406
Being Part of a Professional Organization 27.7 407
Fewer Children Enrolled 11.0 401
More Working Hours 5.1 395

By accessing the INCCRRA provider database downloaded at two points in time, we were able to directly measure turnover among the different types of child care providers. To do so, we compared the number of licensed family child care providers actively providing care on June 30, 2007 to a download of the same database on June 30, 2009. Table 43 shows the net result of losing providers, gaining providers, and providers changing type of care provided a slight increase in the number of family child care providers for the two-year period.

Table 43. Provider Turnover, June 30, 2007 to June 30, 2009: Family Care

Active 2007 Still Active 2009 Percent Change New Providers 2009 Percent Change Active 2009 Percent Change
Number of Active Providers 10,343 8,528 -17.8% 2,190 20.1% 10,718 3.6%
Total Licensed Capacity 91,163 77,404 -15.0% 16,839 18.1% 94,243 3.4%

Motivations and Perceptions about Providing Child Care

To better understand family child care practitioners' motivations for providing child care and to capture their perceptions of their work, they were presented with two sets of questions. First, practitioners were asked to rate their reasons for providing care in their home. As Table 44 shows, all reasons presented were endorsed by a majority of respondents. Multiple reasons were reported for being in the business of providing child care from their homes. The most common, endorsed by more than 90%, were an enjoyment of teaching and desire to have their own business. The least common, still checked by more than half, was caring for their own children.

Table 44. Reasons for Providing Child Care

Reason for Providing Care Percentage N
Enjoy teaching children 94.3 1018
Want to be in business for self 91.6 985
Earn an income 82.4 890
Stay at home with own children 52.9 561

Second, practitioners were asked to rate their agreement with a number of statements about providing child care. Table 45 presents the results of this set of questions and reveals that the majority of respondents agreed with 4 of 5 items. These results suggest that for most licensed family child care practitioners in Illinois, while they consider themselves both small business owners and professionals, money is not the primary reason they are child care providers.

Table 45. Perceptions about Providing Child Care

STATEMENT PERCENTAGE N
I consider myself an early childhood professional 77.9 837
I consider myself a small business owner 95.5 1,035
I do not provide child care for the money 31.1 333
Getting more training helps me become more professional 80.0 866
Because I am my own boss, I can set my own rates & policies 66.3 717

Finally, family child care practitioners were asked to rate whether opportunities for family child care providers had become better, worse, or stayed the same over the past five years. Of the 1,059 providers who responded to this question, 52.8% reported that they had stayed the same over the past five years, 25.8% reported that opportunities for family child care providers have become better over the past five years, 21.2% reported that opportunities for family child care providers have become worse.

Practitioners who felt that opportunities for family child care providers have gotten worse felt that:

As the leader of a local family child care association, I know that a number of my colleagues are having difficulties in filling openings in their programs. Many of us have had children leave or go to part-time care because their parents are losing jobs. There could be providers who are forced out of business because of this.

More state rules and regulations to follow that are just not fair for people to have to do to own their homes. Those changes are very costly and simply not something most providers can afford.

Practitioners who felt that opportunities for family child care providers have gotten better felt that:

My Family Child Care business has become better, due to updates of my program by going to workshops, going back to college to complete my B.A. in Early Childhood Education.

The QRS program, Great START, TEACH and other programs have helped to keep us in child care and to give us more respect and increase in salary, even though there is much that still needs to change.

Conclusion

Child care is an important foundational service that allows employment and economic betterment for families. Without quality care options, parents are less likely to effectively function at their jobs and children do not experience the developmentally stimulating environments that are potentially available. Research has shown high quality child care has been associated with young children's social competence and cognitive development. A nurturing and stable relationship with a provider is one important component of high quality care settings. According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, the education and stability of the child care workforce are critical to the well-being of children and their parents. Young children have much to gain from a well-educated and stable child care workforce. However, with minimal requirements for education and a national turnover rate among child care practitioners at between 25% and 40% (Center for the Child Care Workforce), high quality care is difficult to achieve and maintain. The economic downturn of the last two years has impacted the low-wage, minimal benefit field of child care. Data is needed to inform the use of resources that support child care providers and families. The Salary and Staffing Survey provides in-depth information every two years about wages, salaries and benefits, and other information pertinent to the child care work environment in centers and in family child care homes.

A majority of the child care workforce in Illinois has attained formal education beyond high school. Most practitioners in centers and homes had some college education. Nearly 2 out of three child care center teachers had completed a college degree in early childhood education or child development, although just under 15% of family child care home providers had completed a college degree in early childhood education or child development.

As is the case at the national level, job turnover among child care providers in Illinois is a continuing problem. Over the past two years, the turnover rate for child care center teachers was 27.6% and the turnover rate for child care center teacher assistants was even higher at 39.4%. There were a number of reasons for teacher departures, but the most prevalent was finding another job in child care at a different program (37%). Other reasons included personal reasons, finding a new job unrelated to child care or education, finding a new job in public schools, dissatisfied with pay, dissatisfied with benefits, or taking another position within the agency/organization. However, none of the reasons presented was rated as a major reason for staff departure. This suggests that the reasons for turnover are usually complicated. Data for this survey are gathered from directors or other administrative staff, and not the departing staff member. Had staff themselves responded with their reasons for leaving, the findings might look different.

A sizable proportion of family child care practitioners indicated that they had thought about leaving child care at some point in the previous year. The area of primary dissatisfaction for these providers was low wages and poor benefits.

The nationwide recession appears obvious as compensation for Illinois child care practitioners dropped almost in every position category. The median hourly wage for a child care teacher was $11.00 per hour, down from $12.00 two years ago. Assuming a work week of 40 hours and 52 weeks per year, this is approximately equal to a gross annual salary of $22,880 per year. The median net earnings of licensed family child care providers were less than half that figure, $10,000 per year, down from $12,000 per year two years ago.

Wages vary considerably, however, for teachers in child care centers. For example, in part of southern Illinois (SDA 16) the median hourly wage of a child care teacher is $8.66 per hour. On the other hand, the median wage of a child care teacher in parts of northern Illinois (SDA 3 - Lake County) is $12.95 per hour. Teachers in not-for-profit programs earned more than those in for-profit programs. Full-time teachers in full-year programs earned less than those in part-year programs. Level of education also matters as teachers in full-year programs with more education earned more than those without degrees. The content of college coursework also mattered. For example, teachers with Associates degrees in early childhood education or child development degrees earned higher wages than those with other types of coursework. While there was variation for teachers in child care centers, there was no relationship between education and earnings for family home child care providers. That is, more education did not mean higher net earnings for those providing care in their homes.

The child care workforce has low wages and benefits are also meager. While around 75% of center employees received paid sick leave, vacation leave, and paid holidays, less than 35 percent received assistance with health insurance and life insurance. Even fewer received paid dental insurance and retirement. Family home child care providers reported even fewer benefits. Just over half were paid when closed for holidays and slightly less for vacation days. Fewer than one out of five were paid for sick days. While the majority of family child care providers had health insurance, most were covered through their spouse's employer; about one fifth purchased their own health insurance.

As in past Salary and Staffing Surveys, both center directors and family child care practitioners expressed frustration with low wages and lack of benefits. Aside from the obvious financial stress these factors create for providers, these are understood as continued evidence of the lack of professional respect the child care workforce faces. These factors were cited frequently as contributors to workforce turnover.

If these survey results and comments have any predictive value, it may be to forecast a continuing ambivalence toward the profession among practitioners at all levels of the child care workforce. Throughout the survey, while providers and administrators repeatedly described their love of and dedication to children and their development, they also admitted that they need to make a living. In the end, many expressed pessimism about the child care field.

In spite of these somber findings, survey results also indicate there are some reasons for optimism. The fact that salaries varied according to individual and program factors suggests that there are resources and options that some centers and providers are able to access that provide some compensation for lower wages and benefits in the field of child care. As in years past, access to professional development opportunities does not seem to be a barrier to remaining in the field.

Several statewide programs support provider education and help reduce turnover. These were cited by both center directors and family child care providers as important workforce supports. The Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship (formerly T.E.A.C.H. Early Childhood ® Program) program provides partial college scholarships for both center and family child care practitioners. The Great START wage supplement program provides stipends every six months to center staff and family child care providers based on their education as long as they stay at their same location of employment.

Another program, the Professional Development Advisor Program, is an example of a systematic effort to reach out to providers and positively impact professional development. A recent evaluation demonstrated that the program contributes to more qualified child care practitioners by helping them reach professional objectives.

Such programs can help improve the compensation possibilities of practitioners, thus leading to lower turnover and ultimately higher quality of child care in Illinois.

Appendix A: Survey Instruments

Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Fiscal Year 2009 Illinois Child Care Salary and Staffing Survey - Child Care Centers

Instructions:

  • Please read and follow all directions carefully for each question. For some questions, you will need to check the appropriate box; for some questions, you will need to circle the appropriate number; and for some questions, you will need to write in the appropriate number or information requested.
  • Please DO NOT write your name anywhere on the questionnaire. We have given each survey a number to help us keep track of which providers have returned their forms and which need reminders. All information will be kept confidential.
  • Please try to answer every question as accurately as possible, adding explanatory notes only when necessary. Be sure to complete the colored worksheet in the middle of this survey using the directions provided on the first page of the workbook insert.
  • Please complete the questionnaire and return it in the enclosed, stamped envelope to:
    • Kelley Terveer
      INCCRRA
      1226 Towanda Plaza
      Bloomington, IL 61701
  • Thank you for taking valuable time out of your busy schedule to complete this survey. The survey will take approximately 30 to 45 minutes to complete. It need not be completed at one sitting, but we ask that you return it to us within 2 weeks of receiving it. Your investment of time will contribute to knowledge that will improve the conditions and address the needs of all child care providers in Illinois.

Thank you again.


1. What is your title? (Check one)

  1. Owner
  2. Owner/Director
  3. Director
  4. Director Teacher
  5. Other (specify)

2. How many years experience do you have in a child care and education administrative role?  (number of  years)

ABOUT YOUR PROGRAM

1. Operation schedule of Center (Check one)

  1. Full-Day (8 or more hours), Full Year (at least 49 weeks) only
  2. Full-Day/Full Year with separate part-day option
  3. Part-Day only - nursery school, preschool, Head Start, ISBE Preschool for All
  4. Part-Day only - before- and/or after-school program
  5. Other (specify)

2. Your center is (check only one)

  1. For Profit - private proprietary or partnership
  2. For Profit - corporation or chain
  3. For Profit - corporate sponsored
  4. Private nonprofit - independent
  5. Private nonprofit - affiliated with a social service agency or hospital
  6. Public nonprofit - sponsored by federal, state, or local government
  7. College or university affiliated
  8. Military sponsored
  9. Public school

3. Is your center sponsored by a faith-based organization? YES or NO

4. Is your center… (check one)

  1. a single-site program?
  2. part of a multi-site program?

5a. If your center is part of a multi-site program, what is the name of the parent organization? (name)

5b. If your center is part of a multi-site program, how many sites total do you have in Illinois?  (number)

6. Check ALL current sources of funding received by your center:

  1. Tuition-Based (parent fees)
  2. Illinois Department of Human Services vouchers/certificates (IDHS CCAP) and/or Illinois Department of Human Services Site Contract
  3. Chicago Children and Youth Services (CYS) Site Contract
  4. Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) vouchers/certificates
  5. Head Start
  6. Illinois State Board of Education Preschool for All (ISBE)
  7. Child and Adult Care Food Program 1
  8. Private donations, grants (e.g., foundations, United Way), or fundraising
  9. Corporate/employer subsidies 1
  10. Other (specify)

7. Please estimate the percent of funds you received last year on average from each of the following sources (these should add up to 100%):

  1. Parent fees _____%
  2. Head Start funds _____%
  3. Preschool for All funds _____%
  4. Other public funding (state, federal, or local money) _____%
  5. Private donations, grants (e.g., foundations, United Way), or fundraising _____%
  6. Corporate/employer subsidies _____%
  7. Other (specify) _____________________ _____%

8. What are the approximate annual operating costs (expenses) for your center?  ($ amount)

9. In the past two years, how have your annual operating costs changed? Please respond on the following scale:

  1. Decreased Greatly;
  2. Decreased Somewhat;
  3. Stayed About the Same;
  4. Increased Somewhat; or
  5. Increased Greatly

10. What are the approximate annual revenues (income) for your center?  ($ amount)

11. In the past two years, how have your annual revenues changed? Please respond on the same scale

12. What is your current total enrollment? (number)

13. Do you accept children in your program whose families receive IDHS, CYS, and/or IDCFS child care financial assistance (subsidy)?  YES or NO

13a. If no, briefly explain why not?

13b. If yes, what is your current enrollment of children whose families received IDHS, CYS, and/or IDCFS child care financial assistance (subsidy)?  (number)

14. If you accept, or have accepted in the last two years, children whose families receive child care financial assistance, how easy or difficult has it been to collect the parents' share (co-payments, the difference between the state assistance and what you charge, etc.)?

  1. Very Easy;
  2. Somewhat Easy;
  3. Neither Easy nor Difficult;
  4. Somewhat Difficult;
  5. Very Difficult

15. Over the past two years, has it become easier, more difficult, or about the same, to collect the parents' share of child care cost for those families in your program who receive assistance paying for child care?

  1. Much Easier;
  2. Somewhat Easier;
  3. About the Same;
  4. Somewhat More Difficult;
  5. Much More Difficult

16. Using the following scale, circle the response that best describes your enrollment pattern.

  1. There are always vacancies;
  2. There are often vacancies;
  3. There are sometimes vacancies;
  4. There are rarely vacancies; or
  5. There are never vacancies

17. In the past two years, how has your enrollment changed? Please respond on the following scale:

  1. Decreased Geatly;
  2. Decreased Somewhat;
  3. Stayed About the Same;
  4. Increased Somewhat; or
  5. Increased Greatly

18. Do you have children in your program whose primary language is not English?  YES or NO

18a. If yes, please identify the language(s) spoken:  (language)

19. Please estimate the percentage of children in your program in each category. (These should add up to 100%):

  1. African-American ____%
  2. Caucasian/Whit  ____%
  3. Hispanic/Latino ____%
  4. Native American ____%
  5. Asian/Pacific Islander____%
  6. Multi-racial ____%
  7. Other ____%

ABOUT YOUR STAFF

1. How many staff are in your program? List the number of staff within each category (categories a-f are teaching/instructional staff defined according to DCFS licensing regulations).

  1. Administrative Director (number) 
  2. Director/Teacher (number) 
  3. Early Childhood Teacher (number) 
  4. School-Age Worker (number) 
  5. School-Age Assistant/Aide (number) 
  6. Curriculum Coordinator (number) 
  7. Family Support/Parent Educator (number) 
  8. Cook (number) 
  9. Administrative Support/Secretary (number) 
  10. Building Support Staff (e.g. janitor maintenance) (number)
  11. Other (number)

2. Of the staff in categories b, c, and e above, how many lead teachers do you have? Please use the following definition of a lead teacher: "The lead teacher is the individual with the highest educational qualifications assigned to teach a group/classroom of children and who is responsible for daily lesson planning, parent conferences, child assessment, and curriculum planning."

Depending on the program, this individual may be called a head teacher, master teacher, or teacher. Each group/classroom will have one, and only one, lead teacher. (number)

3. Do you contract for any of the following regularly-provided services for your center? (Check all that apply)

  1. Food service
  2. Building cleaning
  3. Outdoor/grounds maintenance
  4. Other (specify)

4. How many of your administrative and teaching/instructional staff (staff titles a-f above) have a second paying job outside of your center? (number of staff or I don't know)

5. How many staff in your program are male? Write in the number of staff within each category who are male.

  1. Administrative Director  (number)
  2. Director/Teacher  (number)
  3. Early Childhood Teacher  (number)
  4. Early Childhood Assistant/Aide  (number)
  5. School-Age Worker  (number)
  6. School-Age Assistant/Aide  (number)

6. How many staff in your program are fluent in a language other than English? Write in the number of staff within each category who are fluent in a non-English language.

  1. Administrative Director  (number)
  2. Director/Teacher  (number)
  3. Early Childhood Teacher (number)
  4. Early Childhood Assistant/Aide  (number)
  5. School-Age Worker  (number)
  6. School-Age Assistant/Aide  (number)

7. If you have staff who are fluent in a language other than English, please identify the language(s) they are fluent in:  (language)

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

The following questions refer to administrative and instructional staff.

1. Have you heard of the…

  1. Great START program?  YES or NO
  2. Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship program (formerly T.E.A.C.H.)?  YES or NO
  3. Gateways to Opportunity Credentials?  (i.e. Illinois Director Credential, ECE Credential, Infant Toddler Credential) YES or NO
  4. Professional Development Advisor (PDA) program? YES or NO
  5. Quality Counts: Quality Rating System (QRS)? YES or NO

2. Do you have a staff professional development plan for your center? YES or NO

3. Do you have an individual staff professional development plan for teaching/instructional staff?  YES or NO

4. Do you offer in-service training opportunities for your teaching/instructional staff? YES or NO

5. Do you pay for conference/training registration?YES or NO

6. Do you have a salary scale that you share with your staff? YES or NO

7. Other (specify)  YES or NO

8. If you do have a salary scale, is it differentiated by: (check all that apply)

  1. Educational level?
  2. Level of experience?
  3. Additional or supplementary training?
  4. Other (specify)

9. In the last year, did you or your instructional staff receive any training in early childhood education, child development, or health education from the following? (check all that apply)

  1. Child care resource and referral workshops
  2. Local community workshops
  3. Workshops at professional association meetings or conferences

10. Do you or any other staff in an administrative position at your center have an Illinois Director Credential?

Administrative director(s) YES or NO

Director/teacher(s) YES or NO

STAFF TURNOVER AND REPLACEMENT

1. How many staff members have left your program in the last 24 months? Please refer to your permanent full-time and part-time staff members, not temporary, substitute or seasonal staff.

  1. Administrative Director (number) 
  2. Director/Teacher (number) 
  3. Early Childhood Teacher (number)
  4. Early Childhood Assistant/Aide (number)
  5. School-Age Worker (number)
  6. School-Age Assistant/Aide (number)
  7. Other (specify) (number)

2. For each category of employee who left your program in the last 24 months, how important, on a scale from
1= "Not Important" to 5 = "Very Important", were each of the following reasons for leaving your specific program? Please enter a number in each slot using this scale:

POSSIBLE REASONS Administrative Director Director/Teacher Early Childhood Teacher Early Childhood Assistant School-Age Worker School-Age Assistant
a. Took another position within our agency/organization
b. Found a new job in another child care center or agency.
c. Found a new job in public schools
d. Found a new job unrelated to child care or education
e. Dissatisfied - pay
f. Dissatisfied - benenfits
g. Dissatisfied - professional development opportunities
h. Dissatisfied - schedule
i. Terminated/Fired
j. Laid off
k. Retired
l. Personal
m. Other (specify)

3. Please report the number of applicants who applied when you sought to fill a vacancy in the last two years. Write in the number of applicants by category of employee. 

Who Applied Administrative Director Director/Teacher Early Childhood Teacher Early Childhood Assistant School-Age Worker School-Age Assistant
a. Number of DCFS qualified applicants
b. Number of program qualified applicants (e.g. Head Start)
c. Number of non-qualified applicants

4. Please report the number of male applicants who applied when you sought to fill a vacancy in the last two years. Write in the number of male applicants by category of employee. 

Administrative Director Director/Teacher Early Childhood Teacher Early Childhood Assistant School-Age Worker School-Age Assistant
a. Number of male applicants

5. Please report the number of applicants, fluent in a language other than English, who applied when you sought to fill a vacancy in the last two years. Write in the number of applicants fluent in a language other than English by category of employee. 

Administrative Director Director/Teacher Early Childhood Teacher Early Childhood Assistant School-Age Worker School-Age Assistant
a. Number of Applicants fluent in a language other than English

6. If there were any applicants who were fluent in a language other than English, please identify the language(s) they were fluent in: (language)

7. How long did it take you to fill vacancies for each category of staff? For each category of staff, circle how long, on average, it took to fill the vacancy from the time you began your search until you filled the position.

Title Less than 1 week 1-2 weeks 3-4 weeks More than 4 weeks Not applicable
a. Administrative Director 1 2 3 4 5
b. Director/Teacher 1 2 3 4 5
c. Early Childhood Teacher 1 2 3 4 5
d. Early Childhood Assistant 1 2 3 4 5
e. School-Age Worker 1 2 3 4 5
f. School-Age Assistant 1 2 3 4 5

8. Please report the number of male applicants you have hired in the past two years, for each of the following staff categories. Write in the number of male hires by category of employee.

Administrative Director Director/Teacher Early Childhood Teacher Early Childhood Assistant School-Age Worker School-Age Assistant
a. Number of male hires

9. Please report the number of applicants, fluent in a language other than English, you have hired in the past two years, for each of the following staff categories. Write in the number of hires fluent in a language other than English by category of employee.

Administrative Director Director/Teacher Early Childhood Teacher Early Childhood Assistant School-Age Worker School-Age Assistant
a. Number of applicants hired, fluent in a language other than English

10. If there were any applicants you hired who were fluent in a language other than English, please identify the language(s) they were/are fluent in: (language)

11. Has the length of time to fill a vacancy changed over the last two years? For each category of staff, circle how long, on average, it took to fill the vacancy compared to two years ago.

Title Decreased by more than 2 weeks Decreased by 1-2 weeks Stayed the Same Increased by 1-2 weeks Increased by more than 2 weeks Not Applicable
a. Administrative Director 1 2 3 4 5 6
b. Director/Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. Early Childhood Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6
d. Early Childhood Assistant 1 2 3 4 5 6
e. School-Age Worker 1 2 3 4 5 6
f. School-Age Assistant 1 2 3 4 5 6

12. Generally, how easy or difficult has it been for you to fill positions in the past two years? For each category of staff, how easy or difficult has it been to fill that vacancy? Circle the response that best reflects your opinion.

Title Very Easy Somewhat Easy Neither Easy or Difficult Somewhat Difficult Very Difficult Not Applicable
a. Administrative Director 1 2 3 4 5 6
b. Director/Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. Early Childhood Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6
d. Early Childhood Assistant 1 2 3 4 5 6
e. School-Age Worker 1 2 3 4 5 6
f. School-Age Assistant 1 2 3 4 5 6

13. Have the staff you have hired in the past two years met or exceeded qualifications required in the DCFS licensing standards? For each category of staff, write in the number of staff you have hired who met, exceeded or did not meet DCFS qualifications.

Title Met DCFS Qualifications Exceeded DCFS Qualifications Did Not Meet DCFS Qualifications
a. Administrative Director
b. Director/Teacher
c. Early Childhood Teacher
d. Early Childhood Assistant
e. School-Age Worker
f. School-Age Assistant

14. Have the qualifications of your new hires changed over the last two years? Circle the response that best reflects your opinion of the qualifications of staff you have hired in the past two years compared to those you hired more than two years ago.

Title Much Less Qualified Somewhat Less Qualified Same Qualifications Somewhat More Qualified Much More Qualified Not Applicable
a. Administrative Director 1 2 3 4 5 6
b. Director/Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6
c. Early Childhood Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6
d. Early Childhood Assistant 1 2 3 4 5 6
e. School-Age Worker 1 2 3 4 5 6
f. School-Age Assistant 1 2 3 4 5 6

15. There are many reasons why people may not be attracted to employment in the child care field. How important, on a scale from 1 = "Not Important" to 5 = "Very Important", do you think each of the following reasons is? Circle the response for each reason that best reflects your opinion.

  1. Career opportunities in centers are not generally know by people choosing a profession.
  2. Career opportunities are better in other professions or other child-oriented settings.
  3. Child care is not seen as a professional career choice.
  4. Salaries are low.
  5. Benefits are not adequate.
  6. Job openings in centers are not well advertised.
  7. Child Care is not respected as a profesison.
  8. Other (specify)

THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING THIS SURVEY!

Please share any additional thoughts in the space provided below about staffing and compensation issues in the child care field.

Please return your completed questionnaire in the enclosed stamped envelope to:

Kelley Terveer
INCCRRA
1226 Towanda Plaza
Bloomington, IL 61701

If you have any questions, please call Kelley Terveer (800) 649-1884 / (309) 834-1243 or your local Child Care Resource and Referral Agency.


WORKSHEET

Please complete the following worksheet using the instructions on the previous page. Photocopy if you need to include more full-time and part-time paid child care employees.

Employee initials Position Lead Teacher Gender Race/
Ethnicity
Approx. Age Highest Educ. Level completed Is employe 04/02 certified? (see * below) # Hours worked per week Hourly Wage Child Ages Start Date (MO/YR) # Years in Child Care Health Ins Dental Ins Life Insurance Pension or
Retirement
Sick Leave Vacation Holiday Reduced or Free Child Care Educational Stipend
YES or NO $ C E  N C E  N C E  N C E  N C E  N C E  N C E  N C E  N C E  N

*Type 04/02 Certificate is granted by the State of Illinois to educators who have earned a BA degree in early childhood education and passed all state exams and requirements to teach in a publicly funded program serving children pre-kindergarten through third grade.


Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Fiscal Year 2009 Illinois Child Care Salary and Staffing Survey - Family Child Care Home Providers

Instructions:

  • Please read and follow all directions carefully for each question. For some questions, you will need to check the appropriate box; for some questions, you will need to circle the appropriate number; and for some questions, you will need to write in the appropriate number or information requested.
  • Please DO NOT write your name anywhere on the questionnaire. We have given each survey a number to help us keep track of which providers have returned their forms and which need reminders. All information will be kept confidential.
  • Please try to answer every question as accurately as possible, adding explanatory notes only when necessary.
  • Please complete the questionnaire and return it in the enclosed, stamped envelope to:

Kelley Terveer
INCCRRA
1226 Towanda Plaza
Bloomington, IL 61701

* Thank you for taking valuable time out of your busy schedule to complete this survey. The survey will take approximately 15 to 30 minutes to complete. It need not be completed at one sitting, but we ask that you return it to us within 2 weeks of receiving it. Your investment of time will contribute to knowledge that will improve the conditions and address the needs of all child care providers in Illinois.

Thank you again.

ENROLLMENT

  1. During a typical week, what is the largest number of children in your care at any time-excluding your own children? (number)
  2. Do you accept children in your program whose families receive IDHS and/or IDCFS child care financial assistance (subsidy)? YES or NO

2a. If no, briefly explain why not?

2b. If yes, during a typical week, how many children whose families receive IDHS and/or IDCFS child care financial assistance (subsidy) do you care for?  (number)

2c. If yes, how many of the families in your program receive assistance paying for child care (funding from government, employers, or local agencies)? Do not include discounts that you offer to families.  (number)

3. If you accept, or have accepted in the last two years, children whose families receive child care financial assistance, how easy or difficult has it been to collect the parents' share (co-payments, the difference between the state assistance and what you charge, etc.)?

  1. Very Easy;
  2. Somewhat Easy;
  3. Neither Easy nor Difficult;
  4. Somewhat Difficult;
  5. Very Difficult

4. Over the past two years, has it become easier, more difficult, or about the same, to collect the parents' share of child care cost for those families in your program who receive assistance paying for child care?

  1. Much Easier;
  2. Somewhat Easier;
  3. About the Same;
  4. Somewhat More Difficult;
  5. Much More Difficult

5. Do you have children in your program whose primary language is not English?  YES or NO

5a. If yes, please identify the language(s) spoken:  (lanugage)

6. Please estimate the percentage of children in your program in each category. (These should add up to 100%):

  1. African-American _____%
  2. Caucasian/White _____%
  3. Hispanic/Latino _____%
  4. Native American _____%
  5. Asian/Pacific Islander _____%
  6. Multi-racia _____%
  7. Other _____%

7. Using the following scale, circle the response that best describes your enrollment pattern.

  1. There are always vacancies;
  2. There are often vacancies;
  3. There are sometimes vacancies;
  4. There are rarely vacancies; or
  5. There are never vacancies

8. In the past two years, how has your enrollment changed? Please respond on the following scale:

  1. Decreased Greatly;
  2. Decreased Somewhat;
  3. Stayed About the Same;
  4. Increased Somewhat;
  5. Increased Greatly

ASSISTANTS

1. How many paid assistant caregivers do you have? (If you have no paid assistants, write "0".)  (number)

1a. If you do have paid assistants, how much, on average, do you pay the assistants? ($_____per hour)

1b. If you do have paid assistants, how many hours during an average week do assistants work with you?

(number of hours)

2. How many unpaid assistant caregivers do you have? (If you have no unpaid assistants, write "0".) (number)

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

1. What is the highest level of education you have completed? (Check one)

  1. Some high school
  2. High school graduate/GED
  3. Some college classes in early childhood education or child development, no degree
  4. Approved Community College Early Childhood Certificate
  5. Associates degree with early childhood education or child development major
  6. Associates degree in another field
  7. Bachelors degree in early childhood education or child development
  8. Bachelors degree in another field
  9. Masters degree or higher in early childhood education or child development
  10. Masters degree or higher in another field
  11. Other (specify)

2. Do you have an Illinois 04/02 Teaching Certificate? (A Type 04/02 Certificate is granted by the State of Illinois to educators who have earned a BA degree in early childhood education and passed all state exams and requirements to teach in a publicly funded program serving children pre-kindergarten through third grade.)
YES or  NO

3. In the last year, did you receive any training in early childhood education, child development, or health education from the following? (check all that apply)

  1. Child care resource and referral workshops
  2. Local community workshops
  3. Workshops at professional association meetings or conferences
  4. If yes to any of the above, approximately how many hours of training did you attend last year? (___ hours)

4. In the last two years, have you completed any college coursework in early childhood education or child development? YES  or  NO

4a. If yes, how many credit hours did you complete in the last two years? (___ hours)

4b. If yes, were these: Semester hours; Quarter hours; or Both

5. Do you feel you have adequate training opportunities? YES  or  NO

6. What difficulties, if any, have you had trying to find appropriate training or educational opportunities? (check all that apply)

  1. My community does not have enough courses or workshops
  2. Cost of training is too high
  3. Quality of training is not good
  4. Most opportunities are during the day so it is difficult for me to attend
  5. I am unable to take time away from my family to take more training
  6. I am unable to take time away from my work to take more training
  7. There is no reason to pursue more training
  8. Other (specify)

EARNINGS AND BENEFITS

  1. What are your gross annual earnings (income before taxes and expenses, not money from Great START or Gateways Scholarship Program) from your child care program?  ($ amount)
  2. What are your net annual earnings (income after taxes and expenses, not money from Great START or  Gateways Scholarship Program) from your child care program after deducting costs of providing care? If amount is negative, (that is, if you spend more on expenses than you receive in earnings), be sure and put a negative sign (-) in front of the amount.  ($ amount)
  3. What are your annual expenses (such as food, utilities, insurance, or materials) to provide care, not including your wages?  ($ amount)
  4. In the past two years, how have your gross (before taxes and deductions) annual earnings changed? Please respond on the following scale:
  1. Decreased Greatly;
  2. Decreased Somewhat;
  3. Stayed About the Same;
  4. Increased Somewhat; or
  5. Increased Greatly.

5. In the past two years, how have your net (your "take home") annual earnings changed? Please respond on the following scale:

  1. Decreased Greatly;
  2. Decreased Somewhat;
  3. Stayed About the Same;
  4. Increased Somewhat; or
  5. Increased Greatly.

6. In the past two years, how have your annual expenses changed? Please respond on the following scale:

  1. Decreased Greatly;
  2. Decreased Somewhat;
  3. Stayed About the Same;
  4. Increased Somewhat; or
  5. Increased Greatly.

7. On average, how many hours per week are you paid for taking care of children (not counting your own children)? (hours per week)

8. On average, how many hours per week do you spend on different aspects of your child care business after the children leave or before they arrive (such as preparing food for the children, shopping, cleaning, record keeping, or preparing educational activities)? (hours per week)

9. How many weeks per year do you operate? (weeks per year)

10. Are you paid when children are absent because they are sick? YES or NO

11. Are you paid when children are on vacation? YES or NO

12. Are you paid when you are closed for holidays? YES or NO

13. Are you paid when you are closed for vacation days? YES or NO

14. Are you paid when you are closed for sick days? YES or NO

15. Are you paid when you are closed for training days? YES or NO

16. Are you paid when you are closed for other reasons? YES or NO

16a. If yes, please specify

17. Do you charge extra when children are picked up late or dropped off early? YES or NO

17a. If yes, approximately how much per minute? ($ amount)

18. Do you close for any holidays, vacation, sick days, training, or other days off?YES or NO

18a. If yes, approximately how many days per year?  (number of days)

19. Do you participate in the Child and Adult Food Care Program? YES or NO

20. Do you contribute to Social Security and Medicare for yourself? YES or NO

21. In the last year, have you set aside any savings for your retirement?  YES or NO

22. Are you currently covered by any kind of health insurance or medical plan?  YES or NO

22a. If yes, who pays for your health insurance? (check one)

  1. My spouse's employer pays 100%
  2. My spouse's employer pays a partial amount
  3. I purchase my own health insurance
  4. I am Medicaid/Medicare eligible
  5. Other (specify)

23. In the past two years, have you received any of the following types of financial assistance? (check all that apply)

  1. TANF/AFDC
  2. Medicaid for yourself
  3. Medicaid for your child(ren)
  4. Subsidized housing/Section 8
  5. Food stamps/LINK
  6. FamilyCare for yourself
  7. KidCare for your child(ren)
  8. Other (specify)

24. Do you have any other paid jobs, in addition to providing child care in your home? YES or NO

25. Does at least one other adult in your household contribute to your household income? YES or NO

PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT

1. Do you have at least one other child care provider you can talk to if you have a problem in your program?

YES or NO

2. In the past two years, have you contacted your local child care resource and referral agency for help or information when you have had a question or problem?  YES or NO

3. Are you a member of a child care providers' organization? YES or NO

4. Have you heard of the…

  1. Great START program? YES or NO
  2. Gateways to Opportunity Scholarship program (formerly T.E.A.C.H.)? YES or NO
  3. Gateways to Opportunity Credentials?  (i.e. Illinois Director Credential, ECE Credential, Infant Toddler Credential) YES or NO
  4. Professional Development Advisor (PDA) program? YES or NO
  5. Quality Counts: Quality Rating System (QRS)? YES or NO

5. How much longer do you think you will continue to offer child care in your home? 
(number of years) or (I don't know)

6. In the past two years, have you considered no longer providing care?YES or NO

6a. If you have considered no longer providing care in the past two years, why? For each of the following possible reasons, how important, on a scale from 1= "Not Important" to 5="Very Important", is each a reason for your considering no longer providing child care? Please circle the appropriate number:

  1. Dissatisfied with salary
  2. Dissatisfied with benefits
  3. Want to go back to school
  4. Working hours are too long
  5. Not enough work hours
  6. Enrollments are too low
  7. Enrollments are too high
  8. Frustration with parents
  9. Too little respect for what child care providers do
  10. Health problems
  11. Moving/relocating
  12. Too much stress
  13. Too little time off
  14. Isolation
  15. Retirement
  16. Other personal reason(s)
  17. Other reason (specify)

6b. If you have considered no longer providing care in the past two years, how important, on a scale from 1= "Not Important" to 5="Very Important", would each of the following be to make you want to continue providing child care?

  1. Help with problem solving
  2. More contact with other providers
  3. Respite care (a substitute to allow me time off)
  4. Being part of a professional organization
  5. Access to family child care training
  6. Lower enrollments
  7. Higher enrollments
  8. Higher income
  9. Better benefits
  10. Time off
  11. More work hours
  12. Other reason (specify)

7. In the past two years, have opportunities for family child care providers become better, stayed the same, or become worse? (check one)

  1. Better 
  2. Stayed the same
  3. Worse

Please explain:  (explanation)

8. Please read the following statements about providing child care. Circle the response under the heading Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree that reflects your opinion for each of the statements.

STATEMENTS Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Disagree nor Agree Agree Strongly Agree
a. I consider myself an early childhood educator/professional. 1 2 3 4 5
b. I consider myself a small business owner. 1 2 3 4 5
c. I do not provide child care services for the money. 1 2 3 4 5
d. Getting more training helps me become more professional. 1 2 3 4 5
e. Because I am my own boss, I can set my rates and policies to meet my needs. 1 2 3 4 5
f. I would like more education/training related to family child care. 1 2 3 4 5
g. I provide child care to earn an income. 1 2 3 4 5
h. I provide child care to stay at home with my children. 1 2 3 4 5
i. I enjoy teaching children. 1 2 3 4 5
j. I like being in business for myself. 1 2 3 4 5
k. Other (specify) 1 2 3 4 5

PERSONAL PROFILE

1. How old are you?  (circle one)

  1. Under 20 years
  2. 20-29 years
  3. 30-39 years
  4. 40-49 years
  5. 50-59 years
  6. 60 years +

2. Are you: Female  or  Male

3. How do you identify your race/ethnicity?

  1. African-American
  2. Caucasian/White 
  3. Hispanic/Latino
  4. Native American
  5. Asian/Pacific Islander
  6. Multi-Racial
  7. Other

4. Are you fluent in any language(s) other than English?  YES or NO

4a. If yes, in what language(s) are you fluent?  (language)

5. How long have you been taking care of children in your home for pay?  (number of years)

6. Have you ever been employed as a child care center teacher, child care center assistant, or child care center director or as a public school teacher? YES or NO

6a. If yes, for how many years?  (number of years)

THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING THIS SURVEY!

Please share any additional thoughts in the space provided below about staffing and compensation issues in the child care field.

Please return your completed questionnaire in the enclosed stamped envelope to:

Kelley Terveer
INCCRRA
1226 Towanda Plaza
Bloomington, IL 61701

If you have any questions, please call Kelley Terveer (800) 649-1884 / (309) 834-1243 or your local Child Care Resource and Referral Agency.


Appendix B: Child Care Resource and Referral System Map

SDA Counties Served
1 - YWCA Child Care Solutions
Rockford, IL
(888) 225-7072
Boone, JoDaviess, Stephenson, Winnebago
2 - Community Coordinated Child Care (4C)
DeKalb, IL
(800) 848-8727 AND
McHenry CCR&R
McHenry, IL
(866) 347-2277
Carroll, DeKalb, Lee, McHenry, Ogle, Whiteside
3 - YWCA CCR&R
Waukegan, IL
(800) 244-5376
Lake
4 - YWCA CCR&R
Glen Ellyn, IL
(630) 790-8137
DuPage, Kane
5 - Joliet CCR&R
Joliet, IL
(800) 552-5526
Grundy, Kankakee, Kendall, Will
6 - Illinois Action for Children
Chicago, IL
(312-823-1100
Cook
7 - Community Child Care CCR&R
Davenport, IA
(866) 324-3236
Henderson, Henry, Knox, McDonough, Mercer, Rock Island, Warren
8 - Child Care Connection
Illinois Central College
East Peoria, IL
(800) 421-4371
Bureau, Fulton, LaSalle, Marshall, Peoria, Putnam, Stark, Tazewell, Woodford
9 - CCR&R
Bloomington, IL
(800) 437-8256
DeWitt, Ford, Livingston, McLean
10 - Child Care Resource University of Illinois
Urbana, IL
(800) 325-5516
Champaign, Douglas, Iroquois, Macon, Piatt, Vermilion
11 - CCR&R
Eastern Illinois University
Charleston, IL
(800) 545-7439
Clark, Coles, Cumberland, Edgar, Moultrie, Shelby
12 - West Central Child Care Connection
Quincy, IL
(800) 782-7318
Adams, Brown, Calhoun, Cass, Greene, Hancock, Jersey, Pike, Schuyler
13 - Community Child Care Connection
Springfield, IL
(800) 676-2805
Christian, Logan, Macoupin, Mason, Menard, Montgomery, Morgan, Sangamon, Scott
14 - Children's Home & Aid
Granite City, IL
(800) 467-9200
Bond, Clinton, Madison, Monroe, Randolph, St. Clair, Washington
15 - Project CHILD
Mt. Vernon, IL
(800) 362-7257
Clay, Crawford, Edwards, Effingham, Fayette, Jasper, Jefferson, Lawrence, Marion, Richland, Wabash, Wayne
16 - CCR&R
John Logan College
Carterville, IL
(800) 232-0908
Alexander, Franklin, Gallatin, Hamilton, Hardin, Jackson, Johnson, Massac, Perry, Pope, Pulaski, Saline, union, White, Williamson

Appendix C: Licensing Standards for Center Staffing

Section 407.130 - Qualifications for Child Care Director

a) Day care centers licensed for more than 50 children shall employ a full-time child care director to be on site in a non-teaching capacity. The director may be on site in a teaching capacity at the following times:

  1. During the first hour and last hour of a program that operates ten or more hours per day; or
  2. When attendance falls below 50 children.

Day care centers licensed for 50 or fewer children, or half-day programs with children attending no more than three consecutive hours per day regardless of capacity, may employ a child care director who also serves as a member of the child care staff.

  1. When the director serves in both capacities, he or she must meet the qualifications of both the director position and the teaching position.
  2. When the director attends to non-teaching responsibilities, his or her group must be supervised by a person qualified to be in charge of the group.

c) The child care director shall be at least 21 years of age.

d) The child care director shall have a high school diploma or equivalency certificate (GED).

e) In addition to meeting the requirements of Section 407.100, the child care director of a facility serving the same number of groups of pre-school and school-age children or more groups of pre-school children than groups of school-age children shall have achieved:

  1. Sixty semester hours (or 90 quarter hours) of credit from an accredited college or university with 18 semester or 27 quarter hours in courses related directly to child care and/or child development from birth to age six; or
  2. Two years (3120 clock hours) of child development experience in a nursery school, kindergarten, or licensed day care center, 30 semester hours (or 45 quarter hours) of college credits with ten semester or15 quarter hours in courses related directly to child care and/or child development, and proof of enrollment in an accredited college or university until two years of college credit have been achieved. A total of 18 semester hours (or 27 quarter hours) in courses related directly to child care and/or child development is required to be obtained within the total two years of college credits; or
  3. Completion of a credentialing program approved in accordance with Appendix G of this Part, completion of 12 semester (or 18 quarter hours) in courses related to child care and/or child development from birth to age six at an accredited college or university, and two years (3120 clock hours) child development experience in a nursery school, kindergarten or licensed day care center.

f) In addition to meeting the requirements of Section 407.100, the child care director of a facility serving more groups of school-age children than groups of pre school children shall have achieved:

  1. Sixty semester hours (or 90 quarter hours) of credit from an accredited college or university with 18 semester or (27 quarter hours) in courses related to child care and/or child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields, including courses related to school age children; or
  2. Two years (3120 clock hours) of child development experience in a recreational program, kindergarten, or licensed day care center serving school age children or license exempt school-age child care program operated by a public or private school, 30 semester hours (or 45 quarter hours) of college credits with ten semester (or 15 quarter hours) in courses related directly to child care and/or child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields, and proof of enrollment in an accredited college or university until two years of college credit have been achieved. A total of 18 semester hours (or 27 quarter hours) in courses related directly to child care and/or child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping, or other related fields, including courses related to school age children, is required to be obtained within the total two years of college credits.

g) Completion of a training program accredited by the American Montessori Society or Association Montessori International may be substituted for the courses directly related to child care and/or child development required by this Section. Persons holding a Montessori pre-primary credential may serve as director to children through age six. Persons holding a Montessori primary or elementary credential may serve as director to children six years of age or older.

h) Persons who were deemed qualified to serve as a child care director prior to January 1, 1985, continue to be deemed qualified for their position.

i) When a program serves only school-age children and meets the criteria of Section 407.90(c), qualifications for the school-age director responsible for multiple sites and the site coordinators shall be as follows:

  1. The school-age director and each site coordinator shall be at least 21 years of age.
  2. The school-age director shall meet both of the following requirements for education and experience:
  1. Sixty semester hours (or 90 quarter hours) of credit from an accredited college or university, with 18 semester hours (or 27 quarter hours) in courses related to school-age child care, child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields; and
  2. At least 1560 clock hours of child development experience in a recreational program or a licensed day care center serving school-age children.

3) The school-age site coordinators must meet one of the following qualifications:

  1. Thirty semester hours (or 45 quarter hours) of credit from an accredited college or university with 12 semester hours (or 18 quarter hours) related to school-age child care, child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields and 750 clock hours of experience in a recreational program or a licensed day care center serving school-age children or in a license exempt school-age child care program operated by a public or private school; or
  2. 1560 clock hours of experience in a recreational program or licensed day care center serving school-age children or license exempt school-age child care program operated by a public or private school and either six semester hours or nine quarter hours of credit from an accredited college or university related to school-age child care, child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields.
  3. A staff member who meets the qualifications for a day care center director shall be designated to assume decision-making responsibility whenever the child care director is off site. A record of employees who meet the qualifications for director and who have been designated to assume decision-making responsibility in the director's absence shall be kept at the site. The person designated as alternate director may be in the classroom and counted in the staff/child ratio under the following circumstances:
  1. When the center meets the criteria of Section 407.130(b) above; or
  2. During the first hour and last hour of a program that operates ten or more hours per day; or
  3. When attendance falls below 50 children.

(Source: Added at 22 Ill. Reg. 1728, effective January 1, 1998)


Section 407.140 - Qualifications for Early Childhood Teachers and School-age Workers

  1. Early childhood teachers and school-age workers shall be at least 19 years of age.
  2. Early childhood teachers and school-age workers shall have a high school diploma or equivalency certificate (GED).
  3. In addition to meeting the requirements of Section 407.100, the early childhood teacher responsible for a group of children that includes infants, toddler or preschool-age children shall have achieved:
  1. Sixty semester hours (or 90 quarter hours) of credits from an accredited college or university with six semester or nine quarter hours in courses related directly to child care and/or child development, from birth to age six; or
  2. One year (1560 clock hours) of child development experience in a nursery school, kindergarten, or licensed day care center and thirty semester hours (or 45 quarter hours) of credits from an accredited college or university with six semester or nine quarter hours in courses related directly to child care and/or child development, from birth to age six; or
  3. Completion of credentialing programs approved by the Department in accordance with Appendix G of this Part.

d) School-age workers shall be at least 19 years of age and at least five years older than the oldest child with whom they work.

e) In addition to meeting the requirements of Section 407.100, the newly employed school-age worker responsible for a group of school-age children shall have achieved:

  1. Thirty semester hours (or 45 quarter hours) of credit from an accredited college or university with six semester hours (or 9 quarter hours) related to school-age child care, child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields; or
  2. 1560 clock hours of experience in a recreational program or licensed day care center serving school-age children or a license exempt school-age child care program operated by a public or private school, and six semester hours (or nine quarter hours) of credit from an accredited college or university related to school-age child care, child development, elementary education, physical education, recreation, camping or other related fields; or
  3. A high school diploma or equivalency certificate plus 3120 clock hours of experience in a recreational program, kindergarten, or licensed day care center serving school-age children or a license exempt school-age child care program operated by a public or private school.

f) Completion of a training program accredited by the American Montessori Society or Association Montessori International may be substituted for the courses directly related to child care and/or child development required by this Section. Persons holding a Montessori pre-primary credential may supervise children

through age six. Persons holding a Montessori primary or elementary credential may supervise children six years of age or older.

g) Persons who were deemed qualified as a child care worker or school-age worker prior to January 1, 1985, continue to be deemed qualified as an early childhood teacher or school-age worker.

h) Early childhood teachers and school-age workers shall be responsible for the planning and supervision of a group of children. Early childhood workers and school-age workers shall also be responsible for supervising persons assigned to assist their group who are not similarly qualified.

(Source: Added at 22 Ill. Reg. 1728, effective January 1, 1998)


Section 407.150 Qualifications for Early Childhood Assistants and School-age Assistants

  1. Early childhood assistants shall meet the requirements of Section 407.100, with the exception of subsection (b).
  2. Early childhood and school-age assistants shall have a high school diploma or equivalency certificate (GED).
  3. Early childhood assistants shall work under the direct supervision of an early childhood teacher or school-age worker and shall not assume full responsibility for a group of children, except as allowed by Section 407.190(e)(2).
  4. School-age assistants shall work under the direct supervision of a school-age worker and shall not assume full responsibility for a group of children, except as allowed by Section 407.190(e)(2).

(Source: Added at 22 Ill. Reg. 1728, effective January 1, 1998)

Source: Title 89: Social Services, Chapter III: Department Of Children And Family Services, Subchapter E: Requirements For Licensure, Part 407, Licensing Standards For Day Care Centers, Subpart D: Staffing

Appendix D: Acknowledgements

Child care providers are essential to the well-being of Illinois children and families and to the viability of the state's economy. I would like to thank the center staff and family home child care providers who generously gave their time and energy responding to this survey.

Our partnership with the Illinois Department of Human Services and its Bureau of Child Care and Development makes it possible for us to take the pulse of the Illinois child care workforce every other year. I am grateful for their support. In particular I want to thank Holly Knicker and Megan Fitzgerald for meticulously proofreading drafts of this report and making the editorial comments that have significantly improved this document.

The Illinois Network of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies, especially Joellyn Whitehead and Kelley Terveer, provided the contact information for all licensed child care programs listed with the regional child care resource and referrals agencies and provided the construction and hosting of the survey. I would also like to thank them for helping with the transcription and administration of the online versions of the Salary and Staffing Survey.

I would like to acknowledge the work of the Child Care Resiliency program staff in the Department of Human and Community Development who are responsible for the data cleaning and analyses, particularly Samantha King and Laura Hickman who managed and performed much of the data cleaning, entry, and analyses.

Finally, I would like to thank my predecessors, Dawn Ramsburg, Dale Montanelli, and Emily Rouge, and Philip Garnier for providing me with the exemplary template from which to work.

Angela Wiley, Ph.D.
Director, Child Care Resiliency Program
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL