During the second year of life, HFI services support parents in providing optimal stimulation to support social, emotional, and cognitive development, as well as continuing to promote positive parenting and reduce risk for child maltreatment.

Key findings from the second year assessments indicate that in families receiving HFI services, relative to comparison families, parents were more likely to provide learning materials to support their children's cognitive development (see Figure 5). The availability of learning materials at this early age has been found to be significantly correlated with subsequent school age measures of intelligence.  Supporting the provision of age appropriate learning materials is one important way that HFI services help parents ensure their children's optimal development.

Figure 5: HOME Learning materials scores by family type.

Description of Figure 5: HOME Learning materials scores by family type.

No data was given to textually describe the scanned chart but this is what it visually looks like:

There are two lines, One representing the HFI group and the other representing the Comparison group.  These lines are plotted against their Score on the HOME test by age group of the child.  At Birth and 6 months, the two lines are about the same, but at 1 year, 18 months, and 2 years, the scores of the HFI group rise above the Comparison group.

Legend:
HFI ( n = 221 )
Comparison ( n = 54 )

"I have learned to do things such as read, play, and teach my child at an early age." - quote from an HFI parent

During the second year of life, HFI services also continue to promote positive parenting and reduce risk for child maltreatment.  As is the case in any prevention program, HFI families present with varying degrees of risk for problems in parenting.  Thus, it is important to ensure that the program is effective with those families that present with the highest levels of risk.

To address this issue, HFI families were divided into groups of low, moderate, and high risk families based on their Child Abuse Potential Inventory scores at birth.  It is noteworthy that the average score of the high risk HFI parents (M = 300) was well above the clinical cut score (i.e., 215) for this scale.  Numerous studies have shown that high CAP Inventory scores are significantly associated with aggression and use of harsh discipline strategies by parents.  Further, children of high risk parents have increased risk of neonatal morbidity (even after controlling for other obstetric factors) and obtain lower scores on later measures of intelligence and adaptive behaviors.

Importantly, examination of CAP Inventory scores across time revealed that at two years families who presented with the highest risk for problems in parenting actually showed the greatest decline in risk scores (see Figure 6).

Figure 6: CAP Inventory scores by family type.

Description of Figure 6: CAP Inventory scores by family type.

No data was given to textually describe the scanned chart but this is what it visually looks like:

There are three lines, one representing the "High Risk" groups, one representing the "Moderate Risk" groups, and the last representing the "Low Risk" groups.

The three lines plot the CAP scores for these groups by age of the child.  As the children got older the Moderate and High Risk groups' scores decreased over time.  The High Risk group's score was almost matched with the Moderate Risk group's score at 2 years.

Legend:
Low Risk ( n = 151 )
Moderate Risk ( n = 24 )
High Risk ( n = 8 )

Closer inspection of the CAP Inventory subscale scores revealed that high risk parents receiving HFI services showed significant reductions in distress and endorsed lower levels of rigid parenting beliefs at two years.  High risk parents also reported significantly fewer problems with others and significant increases in ego strength.  Collectively, these findings indicate that HFI programs are effective in engaging and retaining high risk parents in prevention services.

"Overall I have become happier and more aware of everything.  Before HFI, I didn't think I could raise my baby alone" - quote from an HFI parent