Implementation and Impact
May 2007

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Research suggests that non-violent youth offenders are less likely to be involved in subsequent delinquent behavior if they remain in their home communities and receive appropriate services that address their underlying needs. Community-based services for juvenile offenders are generally less costly and more effective than institutional care in correctional facilities. In 2005, Redeploy Illinois began four pilot programs. These sites were provided with financial support to deliver comprehensive services in their home communities to youth who might otherwise have been sent to the Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice (IDJJ) with a goal of reducing juvenile commitments by 25%. In the first two years of implementation, the Redeploy Illinois pilot sites, on average, reduced commitments to IDJJ by 44%, or 226 fewer youth, thereby saving the State of Illinois millions of dollars.

INTRODUCTION

In State fiscal year 2005, the financial cost to Illinois tax payers for incarcerating a juvenile offender in an Illinois correctional institution was $70,827 per year. The corresponding juvenile recidivism rate in Illinois was forty-eight percent. As this recidivism rate only counts those juveniles that return to a juvenile institution within three years of release; the number of these youth who later became involved with the adult criminal justice system is unknown.

While the Redeploy Illinois Oversight Board (RIOB) has high hopes that the new Department of Juvenile Justice will have a significant impact on the recidivism rate of incarcerated youth, the RIOB is of the belief that many youth are better served in their home counties rather than in juvenile correctional institutions. Research suggests that non-violent youth offenders are less likely to be involved in subsequent delinquent behavior if they remain in their home communities and receive appropriate services that address their underlying needs. Communitybased services for juvenile offenders are generally less costly and more effective than institutional care in correctional facilities. Unfortunately, a lack of local programs and services plays a significant role in a court's decision to commit a youth to the Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice (IDJJ). This coupled with the fact that a commitment to IDJJ is paid by the State and carries no cost for the committing county, has historically caused inappropriate incarceration of non-violent youth by unintentionally financially encouraging counties to give up on these youth because it is cheaper for the county to commit them rather than provide them with the services they need.

Enter Redeploy Illinois. The Redeploy Illinois pilot program gives counties financial support to provide comprehensive services in their home communities to youth who might otherwise have been sent to IDJJ. In return, the pilot sites commit to reducing annual juvenile commitments by 25%. The funds provided to the Redeploy Illinois pilot sites fill in the gaps in the local continuum of programs and services available for these delinquent youth, allowing counties to more cost-effectively serve these youth locally and reduce their reliance on IDJJ. As a result, youth are being given every opportunity to succeed in their own communities, commitments to IDJJ have been reduced significantly, and the State is saving millions of dollars.

The following discussion presents a series of analyses of the effect of Redeploy Illinois at the local and state level.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The primary target population eligible to receive services through Redeploy Illinois is those youth facing a possible sentence to IDJJ for an offense other than Murder or a Class X Forcible Felony. Redeploy Illinois is viewed as a last resort for these youth. Each pilot site may further restrict eligibility into the program. However, they may never accept a youth into the program that is being charged with Murder or a Class X Forcible Felony.

Local jurisdictions that participate as a Redeploy Illinois pilot site are required to develop plans for community-based treatments for juvenile offenders that protect their communities, promote accountability for the harm caused their victims and communities, and equip youth with the necessary competencies to live responsibly and productively. They include in their contract a target number of youth by which they will reduce IDJJ commitments, at least 25%.

It is also important to understand that because the focus of this pilot initiative is on providing alternatives for the high-end youth, there is still a portion of the continuum that needs to be sufficiently developed and funded beyond Redeploy Illinois to address the needs of youth just beginning their path into the juvenile justice system.

There are currently four Redeploy Illinois pilot sites:

  • 2nd Judicial Circuit
  • Macon County
  • Peoria County
  • St. Clair County

Pilot Site Descriptions

The 2nd Judicial Circuit

(Comprised of 12 rural counties in southeastern Illinois: Crawford, Edwards, Franklin, Gallatin, Hamilton, Hardin, Jefferson, Lawrence, Richland, Wabash, Wayne and White.)

The goal of the 2nd Judicial Circuit Redeploy Illinois program is to utilize individualized and evidence-based practices to address the needs of medium- and high-risk juvenile offenders. Probation officers and community service providers monitor and provide services to juveniles selected for this program. Specific needs are determined on a case-by-case basis. The following assessments are often utilized to ascertain areas of need:

  • YASI (Youth Assessment and Screening Instrument);
  • Psychological Assessment;
  • Sex Offender Assessment;
  • TRACKER Assessment; and
  • Pre-sentence investigation prepared by the probation department.

While the 2nd Circuit has not established formal selection criteria to identify service providers for the initiative, there are several standards used for selection, including the provider's use of the Blueprint Evidence Based Practices programming, the service providers' ability to work with the targeted juvenile population in the geographical locations, and the ability to provide the needed services.

The five major service options supported by the 2nd Judicial Circuit's Redeploy Illinois program are:

  • Aggression Replacement Training
  • Functional Family Therapy
  • Multi-Systemic Therapy
  • Global Positioning System Monitoring
  • Psychological and Psychiatric Evaluation

The expected outcome of these services, which are provided by probation department staff and community-based service providers, is an increase in public safety and the provision of pathways to positive change for youth who are involved in the juvenile justice system.

Juvenile participants of the 2nd Judicial Circuit program are required to be between the ages of 13 and 17 years old; have been adjudicated for an offense punishable by incarceration in IDJJ; have no more than one prior adjudication; and have a YASI score of Medium-High risk. Juveniles convicted of first-degree murder or a Class X forcible felony are ineligible for participation in the program.

Macon County

The pilot program, Community ACCESS (Alternative Collaborative Change Education Support Success), was designed to offer individualized services to juvenile participants based on their specific risk factors and needs. The Macon County program utilizes the YASI, a tool that gathers information to determine appropriate services for participants. Other assessment tools examine mental health and substance abuse issues.

The continuum of services provided by the Macon County Redeploy Illinois program consists of strategies and sanctions ranging from least restrictive to most restrictive including:

  • Quality assessment (initial and ongoing)
  • Cognitive education and treatment
  • Teen court
  • Violence reduction treatment
  • Victim-related services
  • Life skills
  • Community restorative boards
  • Substance abuse treatment
  • Gender-specific services
  • Mental health treatment
  • Parent/family support services
  • Home detention

The pilot program employs local community restorative boards made up of small groups of citizens who are prepared by intensive training to conduct face-to-face meetings with offenders and develop agreements with them. The boards allow community members to meet with juveniles and their families, both to help restore community relationships and to hold the juveniles accountable for harm caused by their actions.

Macon County participants are required to be at least 13 years old; under consideration for possible commitment to IDJJ due to their current offense; eligible for a one year or more term of probation; and convicted of a non-forcible felony. The program could not be used as an alternative to juvenile court involvement or as part of a plea agreement.

Peoria County

The Peoria County Redeploy Illinois program is a collaborative partnership between Peoria County Court Services and Children's Home Association of Illinois (CHAIL). Redeploy Illinois participants are referred from the Juvenile Court Judge as well as identified by probation staff from their existing caseloads. In addition, participant parents must agree to the Redeploy Illinois program assignment.

Peoria County's Redeploy Illinois targets two groups of juveniles. The first group is comprised of juveniles who would have previously been sent to IDJJ for an evaluation. The second group consists of those juveniles on probation who are assessed to be at greatest risk for a full commitment to IDJJ.

Youth that have been referred into the Redeploy Illinois program in need of a court evaluation are placed in a residential setting. During a 21-day stabilization period, they receive an evaluation and assessment. They are then transitioned into the program group. Youth who need more intense mental health treatment receive therapy.

A staff member from the CHAIL conducts a thorough assessment on each youth participating in the Redeploy Illinois program to obtain the information that will assist in developing an individualized service plan for the youth and his/her family. The staff member then collaborates with Peoria County probation staff that work directly with delinquent youth and their families to provide the identified services or link them to resources within the community.

A staff member from the CHAIL conducts a thorough assessment on each youth participating in the Redeploy Illinois program to obtain the information that will assist in developing an individualized service plan for the youth and his/her family. The staff member then collaborates with Peoria County probation staff that work directly with delinquent youth and their families to provide the identified services or link them to resources within the community.

  • A minimum of three contacts per week with the youth that consist of counseling, skill building, collateral contact, curfew checks, and/or staffings with the Probation Officer.
  • Transportation for the youth to and from court hearings, meetings with Probation Officers, treatment sessions/meetings, or other related appointments/meetings.
  • Linkage to community resources.
  • Group counseling sessions.

In order to set goals for the youth and family, each youth receives an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) provided by CHAIL. The IFSP is based on intensive interviews, observations and research into the individual's school, mental health, social, and family history gathered from schools, hospitals, family members, and other relevant individuals.

Types of service include:

  • Individual counseling
  • Family counseling
  • Psychological evaluations
  • Drug treatment
  • Aggression Replacement Training (ART)
  • Service to family
  • Community service/ recreation
  • Collateral contacts and referrals

Another goal is to reduce the level of disproportionate minority confinement (DMC). The percentage of minority youth in Redeploy was higher than the percentage of minority youth committed to IDJJ in 2005. This suggests that Redeploy Illinois in Peoria County may have an impact on DMC.

St. Clair County

The St. Clair County Youth Coalition (SCCYC), consisting of over 100 community stakeholders and youth service providers oversees the pilot initiative. The Children's Home and Aid Society of Illinois (CHASI), a local social service agency, provide program delivery and implementation. Other agencies such as the Lessie Bates Davis Neighborhood House, Kids Hope United, and Cahokia Park United Methodist Church offer services. A court liaison is provided to assist youth and their families during court proceedings and to make referrals to services.

The target population is youth between 13 and 17 years of age with at least one prior delinquent offense who are currently adjudicated for an offense that is punishable by an IDJJ commitment and who are at medium or high risk for re-offending. Youth who are involved in both the juvenile justice system and the child welfare system are given priority. Court ordered referrals to the Redeploy Illinois program are from the State's Attorney's Office, Public Defender's Office, or Juvenile Court Judge. Families have to be willing to participate in the Redeploy program. In addition, non court-ordered referrals from probation or other agencies are allowed to benefit from the program. These youth receive services but are not officially in the Redeploy program.

All referred youth to the St. Clair Redeploy Illinois program are required to undergo a 30-day assessment period. During this period, youth are generally remanded to custody in the St. Clair County Detention Center. Each youth is matched with a CHASI caseworker within 24-hours. The caseworker completes the assessment process through an examination of participants' school, mental health, social, and family history. This information is gathered from schools, hospitals, family members, and other documentation such as YASI scores. In order to set goals for the youth and family, each youth receives a case plan provided by CHASI. After the assessment of the youth and case plan are submitted to the judge, a determination is made whether or not to accept the youth into the Redeploy Program.

To date, more than 30 different services have been made available to participants. The following represent the most commonly utilized services:

  • Multi-systemic Therapy
  • Functional Family Therapy
  • Aggression Replacement Therapy
  • Family group conferencing
  • Domestic violence
  • Program for Reshaping Adolescents Sexual Expression
  • Individual therapy
  • Victimization Counseling
  • Mental health
  • Substance related
  • Education/ Workforce training
  • Recreation Therapy
  • Supervision/ monitoring

The RIOB allowed St. Clair County to use a baseline of 86 commitments, the number of Redeploy eligible juvenile commitments in 2004 rather than the average number of commitments to IDJJ for the 2001 - 2003 years as seen with the remaining three pilot sites. This was due to the dramatically increasing numbers of juvenile commitments over the more recent years. Therefore, the Oversight Board agreed to a more accurate and realistic baseline. In 2007, the Oversight Board and the St Clair County pilot site agreed to adjust their baseline to the 3-year average for 2003 - 2005 for purposes of calculating penalties and monitoring the minimum 25% reduction requirement.

Pilot Expansion

In FY2007, the Redeploy Illinois line item received an increase of $750,000 to expand the initiative. A Request For Proposals (RFP) was developed to solicit applications. The RFP was released on 9/1/06 and due back on 9/26/06. Two applications were reviewed and scored by RIOB members and staff. At the 10/16/06 RIOB meeting, results were discussed and the RIOB determined that Hunters Productions was not an eligible applicant and the decision was made to request additional eligibility information from the Cook County applicant, due back on 11/30/06. This addendum satisfied eligibility requirements; however, the RIOB wanted further clarifications and assurances on a few topics. The RIOB decided on 2/16/07 that Cook County would become the next Redeploy Illinois pilot site. On 3/13/07 IDHS issued a contract to Cook County for signature.

Upon receipt of the contract, Cook County expressed concerns about the reduction in the Redeploy Illinois line item in the Governor's proposed budget released on 3/7/07. As the RIOB and IDHS were unable to assure Cook County that full funding would be made available to the site in FY08, regardless of the appropriation, Cook County understandably did not sign the contract. The RIOB believes Cook County remains very interested in becoming the next Redeploy Illinois pilot site, should funding be restored.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

IDJJ Admissions

Implementation in two of the four Redeploy Illinois pilot sites began in January 2005 with the remaining two beginning implementation later that same year. From 2001 to 2004 there was a statewide average of 1,725 new court admissions of juveniles per year to IDJJ (Figure 1). During calendar year 2005 alone, there was a statewide decrease in new court admissions to IDJJ of 7% (118 youth). In the preceding four years there was never a variation of more than 16 admissions. Is this a direct result of the Redeploy Illinois initiative? The RIOB believes it is. According to IDJJ data for the four pilot sites, during their first year of implementation (2005), 93 fewer youth were admitted to IDJJ than in the corresponding baseline years of the pilot. The RIOB expects that this drop in admissions will hold as the second year of pilot data indicates that 133 fewer youth will have been admitted during the 2006 project period.

Figure 1: Admissions to IDJJ Fiscal Year 2001 thru 2005

FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05
Statewide
Admissions
1,715 1,724 1,731 1,729 1,611

Source: 2005 Department Data, report found on the Illinois Department of Corrections website, Reports & Stats.

Detention Utilization

The four pilot sites implementing the Redeploy Illinois Initiative are focusing on reducing the number of confinement days within IDJJ. To this end, some of the pilot sites utilize a brief stay in detention while the determination is made as to the youth's eligibility and acceptance into the program. For this reason, the RIOB monitors detention data in these pilot sites to ensure that there is not a dramatic shift in confinement from IDJJ to county detention. During the first two years of Redeploy Illinois implementation, the pilot sites saw a collective average length of stay in detention of 12.25 days. This compares to the statewide two-year average of 19 days.

Cost Savings by Pilot Site

In State fiscal year 2005, according to IDJJ, the average cost for a 12-month juvenile commitment was $70,827. The average length of stay for a delinquency commitment was 8.8 months ($51,940). The average length of stay for a court evaluation commitment was 3.5 months ($20,658). In FY 2005, nine percent of the IDJJ juvenile population was incarcerated for a court evaluation. These data are utilized throughout the remainder of this section to calculate cost savings.

Cost savings resulting from Redeploy Illinois were estimated using the following methodology. The estimated number of youth that were "Redeployed" is the difference between the observed number of eligible commitments for a given year and the average annual number of youth sentenced to IDJJ during the baseline period for a given pilot site. The cost savings due to a decrease in commitments was estimated by determining the number of "Redeployed" youth who would have been committed for evaluation (.09 x redeployed youth) and those for a delinquency or full commitment (.91 x redeployed youth). The resulting figures were then applied to the estimated length of stay averages and associated costs calculated.

2nd Circuit - 2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ = $1,375,489

The 2nd Circuit Redeploy Illinois pilot program operates on a calendar year. The average annual number of youth sentenced to IDJJ from 1/1/01 to 12/31/03 eligible for participation in Redeploy was 40.

2nd Circuit
Year Program Period Eligible Commitments Percent Reduction from Baseline (40) Number Redeployed Cost Savings to IDJJ
Year One 1/1/05 - 12/31/05 22 41% 18 $884,243
Year Two 1/1/06 - 12/31/06 30 25% 10 $491,246
2 Year Figures Total 52 Youth Incarcerated 33% Average Reduction 28 Fewer Youth Incarcerated $1,375,489 Cost Savings to IDJJ

Macon County - 2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ = $2,947,478

The Macon County Redeploy Illinois pilot program operates on a calendar year. The average annual number of youth sentenced to IDJJ from 1/1/01 to 12/31/03 eligible for participation in Redeploy was 51.

2nd Circuit
Year Program Period Eligible Commitments Percent Reduction from Baseline (40) Number Redeployed Cost Savings to IDJJ
Year One 1/1/05 - 12/31/05 30 41% 21 $1,031,617
Year Two 1/1/06 - 12/31/06 12 76% 39 $1,915,861
2 Year Figures Total 42 Youth Incarcerated 59% Average Reduction 60 Fewer Youth Incarcerated $2,947,478 Cost Savings to IDJJ

Peoria County - 2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ = $2,947,478

The Peoria County Redeploy Illinois pilot program operates on a fiscal year. The average annual number of youth sentenced to IDJJ from 7/1/01 to 6/30/04 eligible for participation in Redeploy was 78.

Peoria County
Year Program Period Eligible Commitments Percent Reduction from Baseline (40) Number Redeployed Cost Savings to IDJJ
Year One 7/1/05 - 6/30/06 48 39% 30 $1,473,739
Year Two 7/1/06 - 6/30/07* 48 39% 30 $1,473,739
2 Year Figures Total 96 Youth Incarcerated 39% Average Reduction 60 Fewer Youth Incarcerated $2,947,478 Cost Savings to IDJJ

* Year two figures are estimated based on the first six months of commitment data (24).

St. Clair County - 2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ = $3,831,721

The St. Clair County Redeploy Illinois pilot program operates on a fiscal year. The average annual number of youth sentenced to IDJJ from 7/1/01 to 6/30/04 eligible for participation in Redeploy was 86.

2nd Circuit
Year Program Period Eligible Commitments Percent Reduction from Baseline (40) Number Redeployed Cost Savings to IDJJ
Year One 7/1/05 - 6/30/06 62 28% 24 $1,178,991
Year Two 7/1/06 - 6/30/07* 32 63% 54 $2,652,730
2 Year Figures Total 94 Youth Incarcerated 46% Average Reduction 78 Fewer Youth Incarcerated $3,831,721 Cost Savings to IDJJ

* Year two figures are estimated based on the first six months of commitment data (16).

2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ

This table reflects compiled pilot site calculations from the preceding tables. From site start-up through the end of their second full year of implementation, compared to the calculated cost savings to IDJJ during that same time period.
Pilot Site 2-Year Number Reduction from Baseline 2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ from Baseline
2nd Circuit 28 $1,375,489
Macon County 60 $2,947,478
Peoria County* 60 $2,947,478
St. Clair County* 78 $3,831,721
TOTAL 226 Fewer Youth Incarcerated $11,102,166 Cost Savings to IDJJ

* Year two figures are estimated based on the first six months of commitment data.

2-Year Cost Savings to the State of Illinois

This table reflects pilot site grant expenditures from site start-up through the end of their second full year of implementation, compared to the calculated cost savings to IDJJ during that same time period.
Pilot Site 2-Year Project Period State Grant Expenditures 2-Year Cost Savings to IDJJ from Baseline 2-Year Cost Savings to the State of Illinois from Baseline
2nd Circuit $906,604 $1,375,489 $468,885
Macon County $597,087 $2,947,478 $2,350,391
Peoria County* $764,938 $2,947,478 $2,182,540
St. Clair County* $862,794 $3,831,721 $2,968,927
Total $3,131,423 Pilot Site Grant Expenditures $11,102,166 Cost Savings to IDJJ $7,970,743 Cost Savings to the State

* Year two figures are estimated based on the first six months of commitment data.

CASE STUDY

Rachael is a 13-year-old female on probation for car theft. She struggled to get along with her mother and sister at home, but family relationships were very strained. Rachael was also struggling at school. She was receiving services both in school and from a private psychiatrist for mental health issues. In an effort to help, the probation officer had also referred the family for group therapy. However, the family was seemingly overwhelmed by the general chaos, and the situation remained critical.

In an effort to reduce stress within the family, Rachael moved out of her mother's home and into her oldest sister's home, which allowed Rachael also to transfer to an alternate junior high school in the district. Rachael continued to have problems, however, and her behavior and poor attitude caused conflict with her sister. She eventually returned to her mother's home and finished out the school year, but due to ongoing probation violations, she was brought back before the court. This time, Rachael was referred to the Redeploy Illinois program.

Rachael first received a thorough psychological assessment, and an in-depth family assessment was performed. These tools indicated ongoing family conflict, poor communication, clinical depression and suspicion of drug use. Rachael and her family were linked with needed counseling and services to repair family relationships. At this very fragile time in their family life, Rachael's family home caught fire and was extensively damaged. Though family tensions inevitably increased for a time, the coordination of services established through Redeploy helped to stabilize the situation.

Rachael and her mother have now completed family therapy and their relationship has improved. Through mental health counseling and substance abuse treatment services, Rachael is now following her mother's rules and curfew, and is abiding by the terms of her probation. Redeploy Illinois has helped Rachael to build the skills and find the confidence to succeed. She has been able to use skills learned in Aggression Replacement Therapy to assist her in coping with problems that arise at school and home. Rachael completed the first semester of school at an alterative school and did so well that she was transferred back to her original school for the start of the second semester. Rachael reports at this time that she is looking forward to attending her old school again and believes she can succeed. She is following all of her probationary guidelines and has turned her life around.

EVALUATION

Independent evaluators were hired to conduct a process and preliminary impact evaluation utilizing an approach that was systematic and comprehensive with a variety of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The evaluations were designed to address the unique characteristics of the pilot sites through establishing key performance indicators and research questions for assessing the impact and implementation of the Redeploy Illinois program

The research team at Powered Performance, Ghenno Senbetta, Ph.D., and Darryl L. Jinkerson, Ph.D. evaluated the 2nd Judicial Circuit and Macon County Redeploy programs. The 2nd Judicial Circuit was evaluated for the time period of March 1 through December 31, 2005. The Macon County Redeploy program was evaluated for the time period of January 1 and October 31, 2005.

The research team at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Gaylene S. Armstrong, Ph.D., Todd A. Armstrong, Ph.D., and Vince J. Webb, Ph.D., evaluated the St. Clair County Redeploy and the Peoria County Redeploy programs. The Peoria Redeploy program was evaluated for the time period of June of 2005 through March of 2006. The St. Clair program was evaluated for the time period of January 1 through Oct. 31, 2005

The evaluation reports describe in detail the developmental processes that took place within each site as well as an in-depth description of each initiative. The data and process analysis conducted in each site indicated that all were on-track to meet the goals set forth in the statute, implementing community-based sanctions, treatment alternatives, and services for juveniles who would have otherwise been committed to IDJJ, while projecting that each would successfully meet the minimum 25% reduction requirement. Additionally, the program costs were dramatically lower per juvenile than the cost of committing juveniles to IDJJ.

To view these evaluation reports, please visit the web site for the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority at www.ICJIA.state.il.us.

CONCLUSION

In the first two years of implementation, the Redeploy Illinois pilot sites, on average, reduced commitments to the Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice (IDJJ) by 44% within their communities, or 226 fewer youth. Thus, for every one million dollars spent by Redeploy Illinois Pilot sites, IDJJ has seen a decrease of $3.55 million in costs to incarcerate juveniles. This equates to an $11 million dollar 2-year cost savings to IDJJ. Although the RIOB understands that this cost savings to IDJJ does not represent an actual dollar for dollar decrease in IDJJ direct costs, it does stand to reason that if these reductions are maintained over time, that IDJJ would be able to begin restructuring and downsizing.

2005 represents the first year of Redeploy Illinois implementation in the four pilot sites. Pilot site commitment data indicated that 93 fewer youth were sentenced to IDJJ than in baseline years. In 2005, IDJJ saw a 7% (118 youth) statewide decrease in new admissions. A drop of this size has not been seen in recent years. The RIOB expects that this drop in admissions will continue to hold as the second year of pilot data indicates that 133 fewer youth will have been committed during the 2006 project period.

If these reductions are to be maintained, it will be critical for the Legislature and this initiative to continue to direct funding toward the continuum of services being developed in these pilot sites.

The RIOB recommends that this pilot be continued and expanded to more communities throughout the State. At a minimum, the RIOB would like to request an increase in the annual appropriation of $750,000 to give them the ability to expand the initiative into Cook County.